<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Natural sciences

Grade 9

Life processes: healthy life

Module 4

The human respiratory system

Structure of the respiratory system:

  • You have air passages that consist of nasal passages, an oral cavity, throat (pharynx), a trachea and two bronchi .
  • You have two lungs consisting of thousands of air sacs called alveoli . This increases the area of the lungs to the size of a badminton court.
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Class activity: study of the lungs of a sheep or a pig

  • If possible, your educator should have the lungs of a sheep or a pig in the classroom for you to examine while working through this unit.

the human respiratory system

Processes:

  • There are other systems besides the digestive system that are important for the effective functioning of the body. We will examine the systems for respiration, excretion, propulsion and reproduction, as well as the skeleton.
  • Every cell in the body of a living organism needs oxygen for RESPIRATION . It is the ENERGY-GIVING PROCESS during which glucose is “burned” in the presence of oxygen. The waste product of this process is carbon dioxide.
  • The part of the cell where this occurs, is the mitochondria .
  • These substances get to and from the cells by means of the bloodstream.
  • BREATHING and EXCHANGE OF GASES are the processes by which oxygen arrives in the blood and carbon dioxide leaves the blood.
  • BREATHING: the process by which air moves into and out of the lungs with the help of muscle action. The process of breathing in, or inhalation, is also known as INSPIRATION and breathing out, or exhalation, is known as EXPIRATION .
  • EXCHANGE OF GASES : The process by which gases such as carbon dioxide in the blood and oxygen that is in the air in the lungs are exchanged to get oxygen into the blood and to the cells.
  • RESPIRATION : the energy-giving process that occurs in the mitochondria in cells. Often people use the term Respiration incorrectly when they mean breathing.

Adaptations that facilitate these processes:

  • for BREATHING , we have a DIAPHRAGM, a muscular partition below the lungs that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and contracts and relaxes to alter pressure in the thoracic cavity. There are also INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES that raise and lower the ribcage.
  • for GASEOUS EXCHANGE in the lungs, there are thousands of air sacs, or ALVEOLI, with very thin, moist walls filled with blood vessels.
  • for GASEOUS EXCHANGE in the tissues there are fine blood capillaries that extend to each cell, and tissue fluids that surround the cells and the mitochondria.
  • EXPLAIN EACH OF THE ADAPTATIONS IN THE TABLE:
Diaphragm
Intercostal muscles
Thousands of alveoli
Thin-walled blood capillaries
Alveoli with single-layer epithelia
Mucus membrane with cilia

Class assignment: DRAWING

  • Make a sketch to illustrate the alveoli and the blood capillaries that facilitate the movement of gases.

Assessment: DRAWING

Could you draw the sketch correctly?

LO 2.3

Assessment

Learning Outcomes 2 : Constructing Science knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

We know this when the learner:

  • interprets information.

Memorandum

EXPLAIN EACH OF THE ADAPTATIONS LISTED IN THE TABLE:

Increases/decreases the thoracic cavity (chest cavity)
Raise/lower the ribcage
Enlarge the surface
Short distance for diffusion
Thin layer for fast diffusion
Mucus layer traps particles, cilia remove particles and dust

CLASS ASSIGNMENT: DRAWING

  • Labels: alveoli

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Natural sciences grade 9' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask