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This module exists solely to tie up loose ends left over from the previous modules. More precisely, in this module may be found the Matlab code and workspace used for the purposes of this project and the sample waveforms against which we tested our program. First, though, a discussion on up-sampling:

Up-sampling

Up-sampling (that is, representing something with few samples as something with many samples) is relatively straight forward when one deals with rational multiples. First, one converts the signal into the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform discussed in a previous module. The samples are then "spread out" (zeros are added) based on the rational multiple by which one is up-sampling. Then a low-pass filter and IFFT later, you're back to an up-sampled version of the original signal.

Limitations

No project is complete without first recognizing the limitations inherent in whatever was accomplished. The most significant drawback in our program in terms of realizing our final goal is the lack of automating the threshold detection. Without an "intelligent" program, perhaps based on a neural network, we have little hope of filtering out a particular instrument in the data representing a full orchestra. We are quite capable, however, of detecting multiple instruments so long as the multiple is not too large and we are allowed to set the threshold ourselves.

The computational complexity increases with the number of instruments (samples) tested. We create no explicit infrastructure to break a song into component tracks (at least conceptually) so that we may analyze each one against a particular set of samples representing a single instrument. Also, we would be well-advised to input the frequency domain representation of the samples to decrease computational complexity.

A further limitation is the need to input several samples from the same instrument. Ideally, we would input merely the sound of that instrument playing and modulate that one sound to create as wide a range of tones as was required. The idea here being that a given instrument has a unique frequency fingerprint that remains intact over all frequencies. This is not perfectly true (each instrument has its own idiosyncracies relating to its real-world implementation), but might prove accurate enough for our proposed analysis.

Future instrument and note recognition endeavors

And no limitations section is complete without some mention of how to surpass those limitations. The goal of any project is to refine the product to the point beyond which refinement is no longer possible. Because this is in practice impossible to accomplish, we will list a set of future "next steps" we or others who follow may be encouraged to take.

To intelligently detect the relative volume of noise in a given sample, one might best be served to create a statistical filter which recognizes random noise. This statistical filter would, in theory, identify the windows which most resemble random noise. From knowledge of which windows cause noise, one might derive the volume-level (read: power-level) associated with said noise and set the threshold at some point beyond that. The upper-bound of the threshold could be found as the lowest power value for any other non-noise (as indicated by the statistical filter) window.

The threshold detection for specific instruments is more complicated: our suggestion is to develop some method of correlation or detection as-of-yet unknown to these authors (but likely known to those who research these concepts). This method would likely match frequency domain signals rather than time domain (that is, match filtering two frequency domain representations; sort of a meta-Matched Filter in terms of FFTs) using some statistical algorithm.

The computation complexity issue is trivial to solve. One must simply code the infrastructure to analyze a given signal in several channels, each acting as our entire program now acts. To convert the samples into the frequency domain, one need only FFT each sample.

The final observed limitation, too, is within our grasp. We briefly attempted a method which is promising: Mellin transformation. Essentially, when one takes a signal and transforms it into the Mellin domain (by multiplying by an exponential), one is in the position to merely phase-shift the frequency domain representation to acheive a modulation. Thus, converting back from the Mellin domain after phase-shifting the original transformed signal changes one note into another (musical modulation). This also has ( many ) more applications than simply for our particular program. Image recognition over dilation comes most immediately to mind.

Relevant files

If you choose to use our files, we would like to be informed of their use. Not because we want to inhibit any potential use of our work but rather because we want to know our audience is more than a few trillion electrons searching the internet for googly content. Imitation is, after all, the sincerest form of flattery. We hope you find our work both enlightening and useful.

Matlab code

Our primary program.

Our output-processing program.

Our Up-Sampling program. (Expects a vector as input; outputs a vector).

Our Up-Sampling program. (Expects a struct as created from Matlab's "Import Data" feature when importing a .wav file as input; outputs a similar struct).

Clarinet samples

The samples used for analysis of the professional recordings (i.e. recordings sampled at 44100 Hz)

The samples used for analysis of the unprofessional recordings (i.e. recordings sampled at 22050 Hz)

One may convert these samples to any other sampling frequency by means of the up-sampling program. The samples cover from the lowest note on a Bb Clarinet (E in the chalameau register) to the highest C in the clarion register (right before reaching the altissimo register). The lowest three notes have questionable integrity (I choose to blame the microphone ;-) ).

Music files (signals)

A Chromatic Scale , as performed on clarinet by the up-and-coming clarinetist, Michael Lawrence.

Stravinsky's Three Pieces for Clarinet , unknown artist.

Barber's Adagio for Strings . , Kalman Opperman Clarinet Choir.

For our program to work, .mp3 files must first be decompressed into .wav files. We used a free program found on http://www.cnet.download.com . We would post the decompressed files but, as one might imagine, they are too large to post on Connexions.

Poster

Our Poster.

In the name of thoroughness, we include a copy of the poster created for an end-of-semester poster session show-casing our project. You should find a great deal of it familiar.

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Instrument and note identification. OpenStax CNX. Dec 14, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10249/1.1
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