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The hotshot hypothesis

While the preference model suggests that females are biased towards aggregated males in general, the hotshot model proposes that females show a preference for particular individual males (Young 2009). The theory claims that leks form as aggregations of inferior males around the preferred “hotshots” in attempts to increase their successes in attracting females by intercepting the females attracted to the hotshot. This theory leads to the logical prediction that preferred males should display in central territories with inferior males aggregated about them (Young 2009).

Lake Malawi Cichlids
Lake Malawi Cichlids

Opposition

Cichlids

A study performed in Africa by Kyle Young followed the behavior of a species of bower -building cichlid fish, Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus (Young 2009). Male bowers are volcano-shaped nests that males defend and territorialize in their courtship of passing females. This species is native to Lake Malawi, Africa, and demonstrates many characteristics that suit it for studying lek behavior. The male cichlids build bowers that are easily quantified in size and their reproductive behaviors are easily assigned cost and benefit figures. Additionally, researchers can easily study female choice, as males of this species do not actively pursue females but rather court them as they pass the males’ bowers. Variation in courtship rates is therefore a result of female, rather than male, choice because the males play no role in the coordination of a partnership. Finally, the series of mating behaviors in this species relies first on indirect female choice, in swimming past a male’s bower, then on direct female choice, as the female assesses the pursuing male and his bower and determines whether to proceed with the mating process (Young 2009).

Researchers followed three different leks for one week during peak mating season, documenting every instance of a male beginning courtship with a female, acting out of aggression toward a male of the same species, acting aggressively toward a male of a different species, building his bower, and engaging in foraging behavior. The researchers then created a correlation matrix relating the position and size of the bower, male behaviors, and female interest.

Five graphs showing courtship, conspecific attack, heterospecific attack, bower-building, or foraging behaviors as a function of lek size.
Results showing courtship, conspecific attack, heterospecific attack, bower-building, and foraging behaviors as a function of lek size Young 2009

The results of the study, however, did not show support for the hotshot hypothesis. Researchers determined a negative correlation between conspecific attack rate and bower location, which suggests that there is, in fact, an added cost that the hotshots must bear to hold the central lek territory, but this did not affect their encounter rate with females (Young 2009). In other words, lek position, bower size, and attack rate had no correlation to courtship initiation by females. Additionally, none of these factors correlated significantly with the reproductive success of the cichlid males either. In further evidence against the hotshot theory, once courted, females did not show any direct preferential selection for males holding territories in the center of the lek.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
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Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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