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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1201 to 1300

China and manchuria (yuan dynasty to 1368, then ming)

By the beginning of this century the use of moveable, wooden characters for printing had become widespread in China and had even spread to - Turkestan. (Ref. 260 ) In the early decades as much grain was carried in seagoing vessels as moved on the canals, in part because improvement of navigation techniques shortened the sea trip along the coast. The use of great rafts began at this time with tree trunks tied together with a type of wicker rope to bring wood from Szechwan down to Peking. For the open sea they had large, four-deck junks with water-tight compartments, four to six masts carrying up to 12 large sails and manned by about 1,000 men. Local rebellions and sea piracy soon became problems that interfered with long distance shipping, however, and even before the collapse of the Mongol Dynasty sea shipments had become markedly reduced. (Ref. 260 , 279 ) The use of the Chinese abacus for calculations and the Indian decimal system had already traveled to the western world across the southern seas and had helped to stimulate trade.

The Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty faltered as the Mongols lost power in Europe and western Asia. The bubonic plague spread eastward, also, so that in 1331 9/10 of the population of Hopei died and between 1353 and 1354 perhaps 2/3 of the entire population of China expired. This, combined with civil war occurring as the Mongols were beginning to be overthrown after 1335, along with disastrous floods in the eastern plains from 1254 to 1359, wrecked havoc on China's population and it dropped from 123 million about A.D. 1,200 to 65 million in 1393. The revolt against the Yuan rulers was led in 1368 by an ex-Buddhist monk, Chu Yuan-chang, who burned the great Mongol center at Karakorum in the Gobi desert and entered Nanking in triumph, proclaiming himself the first emperor of the Ming or Brilliant Dynasty. It was not until 1387-8 that all of China was conquered and the Mongols were finally completely defeated. The use of cannon by the Mings helped in their victory. (Ref. 213 , 260 )

The Ming revised agriculture by rebuilding irrigation and drainage works and carrying out reforestation projects so that another period of prosperity developed by the end of the century. By 1380 the population of the south was 21/2 times that of the north, because of rice cultivation, with 2 or 3 harvests a year. (Ref. 260 ) At first the Ming had an aggressive foreign policy, with campaigns against the Mongols in the far north and- the restoration of Korea to vassal status. (1369). The Ming also rebuilt the navy. A Chinese ship of that period, now being recovered from under water near South Korea, reveals a three-masted junk with squared off ends, flat bottom without keel and bulk heads dividing the ship into compartments. The ship had many treasures, including porcelain, lacquer ware and bronze and iron cooking utensils and silver and iron ingots. (Ref. 12 , 8 , 112 , 140 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

what are the important of economic to accounting students with references
salihu Reply
Economics is important because it helps people understand how a variety of factors work with and against each other to control how resources such as labor and capital get used, and how inflation, supply, demand, interest rates and other factors determine how much you pay for goods and services.
Muhammad
explain the steps taken by the government in developing rural market?
Azeem Reply
contribution of Adam smith in economics
abel Reply
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Amir
what is the meaning of function in economics
Effah Reply
Pls, I need more explanation on price Elasticity of Supply
Isaac Reply
Is the degree to the degree of responsiveness of a change in quantity supplied of goods to a change in price
Afran
Discuss the short-term and long-term balance positions of the firm in the monopoly market?
Rabindranath Reply
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Mitiku
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Rabindranath
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OLANIYI
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OLANIYI
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Lerato
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Umarou
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Umarou
what is firms
Anteyi Reply
A firm is a business entity which engages in the production of goods and aimed at making profit.
Avuwada
What is autarky in Economics.
Avuwada
what is choice
Tia Reply
So how is the perfect competition different from others
Rev Reply
what is choice
Tia
please what type of commodity is 1.Beaf 2.Suagr 3.Bread
Alfred Reply
1
Naziru
what is the difference between short run and long run?
Ukpen Reply
It just depends on how far you would like to run!!!🤣🤣🤣
Anna
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Ukpen
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Ada
Is this not economics?
Ukpen
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Docky
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Docky
Okay and I was being serous
Anna
The short run is a period of time in which the quantity of at least one inputs is fixed...
Anna
that is the answer that I found online and in my text book
Anna
Elacisity
salihu
Meaning of economics
Suraj Reply
It will creates rooms for an effective demands.
Chinedum Reply
different between production and supply
babsnof
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Suraj
hlo
eshita
What is the economic?
Suraj
Economics is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which has an alternative use.
Mr
what is supply
babsnof
what is different between demand and supply
Debless Reply
Demand refers to the quantity of products that consumers are willing to purchase at various prices per time while Supply has to do with the quantity of products suppliers are willing to supply at various prices per time. find the difference in between
Saye
Please what are the effects of rationing Effect of black market Effects of hoarding
Atty Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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