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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1201 to 1300

China and manchuria (yuan dynasty to 1368, then ming)

By the beginning of this century the use of moveable, wooden characters for printing had become widespread in China and had even spread to - Turkestan. (Ref. 260 ) In the early decades as much grain was carried in seagoing vessels as moved on the canals, in part because improvement of navigation techniques shortened the sea trip along the coast. The use of great rafts began at this time with tree trunks tied together with a type of wicker rope to bring wood from Szechwan down to Peking. For the open sea they had large, four-deck junks with water-tight compartments, four to six masts carrying up to 12 large sails and manned by about 1,000 men. Local rebellions and sea piracy soon became problems that interfered with long distance shipping, however, and even before the collapse of the Mongol Dynasty sea shipments had become markedly reduced. (Ref. 260 , 279 ) The use of the Chinese abacus for calculations and the Indian decimal system had already traveled to the western world across the southern seas and had helped to stimulate trade.

The Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty faltered as the Mongols lost power in Europe and western Asia. The bubonic plague spread eastward, also, so that in 1331 9/10 of the population of Hopei died and between 1353 and 1354 perhaps 2/3 of the entire population of China expired. This, combined with civil war occurring as the Mongols were beginning to be overthrown after 1335, along with disastrous floods in the eastern plains from 1254 to 1359, wrecked havoc on China's population and it dropped from 123 million about A.D. 1,200 to 65 million in 1393. The revolt against the Yuan rulers was led in 1368 by an ex-Buddhist monk, Chu Yuan-chang, who burned the great Mongol center at Karakorum in the Gobi desert and entered Nanking in triumph, proclaiming himself the first emperor of the Ming or Brilliant Dynasty. It was not until 1387-8 that all of China was conquered and the Mongols were finally completely defeated. The use of cannon by the Mings helped in their victory. (Ref. 213 , 260 )

The Ming revised agriculture by rebuilding irrigation and drainage works and carrying out reforestation projects so that another period of prosperity developed by the end of the century. By 1380 the population of the south was 21/2 times that of the north, because of rice cultivation, with 2 or 3 harvests a year. (Ref. 260 ) At first the Ming had an aggressive foreign policy, with campaigns against the Mongols in the far north and- the restoration of Korea to vassal status. (1369). The Ming also rebuilt the navy. A Chinese ship of that period, now being recovered from under water near South Korea, reveals a three-masted junk with squared off ends, flat bottom without keel and bulk heads dividing the ship into compartments. The ship had many treasures, including porcelain, lacquer ware and bronze and iron cooking utensils and silver and iron ingots. (Ref. 12 , 8 , 112 , 140 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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