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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1201 to 1300

China and manchuria (yuan dynasty to 1368, then ming)

By the beginning of this century the use of moveable, wooden characters for printing had become widespread in China and had even spread to - Turkestan. (Ref. 260 ) In the early decades as much grain was carried in seagoing vessels as moved on the canals, in part because improvement of navigation techniques shortened the sea trip along the coast. The use of great rafts began at this time with tree trunks tied together with a type of wicker rope to bring wood from Szechwan down to Peking. For the open sea they had large, four-deck junks with water-tight compartments, four to six masts carrying up to 12 large sails and manned by about 1,000 men. Local rebellions and sea piracy soon became problems that interfered with long distance shipping, however, and even before the collapse of the Mongol Dynasty sea shipments had become markedly reduced. (Ref. 260 , 279 ) The use of the Chinese abacus for calculations and the Indian decimal system had already traveled to the western world across the southern seas and had helped to stimulate trade.

The Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty faltered as the Mongols lost power in Europe and western Asia. The bubonic plague spread eastward, also, so that in 1331 9/10 of the population of Hopei died and between 1353 and 1354 perhaps 2/3 of the entire population of China expired. This, combined with civil war occurring as the Mongols were beginning to be overthrown after 1335, along with disastrous floods in the eastern plains from 1254 to 1359, wrecked havoc on China's population and it dropped from 123 million about A.D. 1,200 to 65 million in 1393. The revolt against the Yuan rulers was led in 1368 by an ex-Buddhist monk, Chu Yuan-chang, who burned the great Mongol center at Karakorum in the Gobi desert and entered Nanking in triumph, proclaiming himself the first emperor of the Ming or Brilliant Dynasty. It was not until 1387-8 that all of China was conquered and the Mongols were finally completely defeated. The use of cannon by the Mings helped in their victory. (Ref. 213 , 260 )

The Ming revised agriculture by rebuilding irrigation and drainage works and carrying out reforestation projects so that another period of prosperity developed by the end of the century. By 1380 the population of the south was 21/2 times that of the north, because of rice cultivation, with 2 or 3 harvests a year. (Ref. 260 ) At first the Ming had an aggressive foreign policy, with campaigns against the Mongols in the far north and- the restoration of Korea to vassal status. (1369). The Ming also rebuilt the navy. A Chinese ship of that period, now being recovered from under water near South Korea, reveals a three-masted junk with squared off ends, flat bottom without keel and bulk heads dividing the ship into compartments. The ship had many treasures, including porcelain, lacquer ware and bronze and iron cooking utensils and silver and iron ingots. (Ref. 12 , 8 , 112 , 140 , 222 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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