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The far east

Back to The Far East: 8000 to 5000 B.C.

China and manchuria

There was a Neolithic Yang-Shao culture in both central and western China with domesticated animals and cultivated millet, which reached a peak about 3,000 B.C. The Chinese are not a homogeneous people, and represent a medley of human varieties, different in origin, language, character, customs and government. The earliest Chinese city was Liang Ch'eng of the Lung-Shan Culture, dating to about 3,500 B.C. The inhabitants had great technical skill and a high level of organization and ritual. Prior to that the ancestors of the present Chinese civilization were developing an agricultural community around 49000 B.C. in the loess covered highlands of north and northwestern China, where the well drained soil of the river terraces was ideal for the early crops. The Lung-Shan Culture appeared on the lowland north China plain and eventually spread over all of China proper except the southwest, but it had many regional variations. Overall it was characterized by wheel made, unpainted, black pottery with a burnished, lustrous surface. The people lived in walled communities on the river plains, almost from Manchuria to Vietnam. They had rice as well as millet, domesticated cattle and sheep. Their religion emphasized ancestor worship (Ref. 8 , 101 ) Additional Notes

Japan

Neolithic societies only.

Korea

Neolithic societies only.

Southeast asia

There is evidence of a bronze industry in Thailand by 3,600 B.C. and probably the tin came from Malaysia, which remains today the world's greatest producer of that metal. Wild rice was cultivated at Non Nok Tha, Thailand, by 3,500 B.C. Some excavations near the Loatian border at Ben Chieng show bronze weapons and wheels, carved ivory and pottery, all beautifully made. Sometime in this period Malayan people joined the first inhabitants of the Philippines and Madagascar. Hypothetically some of them could even have gone to Brazil around the south end of Africa (Ref. 155 , 215 , 211 , 176 , 175 ) Additional Notes

Forward to The Far East: 3000 to 1500 B.C.

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Human bones of this period have been found at Songze excavations near Shanghai. Ritual ceramics were made with the potters' wheel and the artisans were beginning to temper their wares during firing. (Ref. 314 )

Joyce White (Ref. 296 ) describes a current exhibit at Ban Chiang, which has objects recently excavated from the Stone Age of 5000 B.C. to the Bronze Age, beginning at least by 3600 B.C. These excavations indicate settlement soon after 4000 B.C., with raised domestic stock and probably rudimentary rice cultivation. Unusual was the use of metals, not in an urban context, but in villages, in such things as spear points, axes and personal ornaments. They had beautiful pottery from 3600 B.C. on, and the culture, overall, lasted about 4,000 years. John Pfeiffer (Ref. 297 ) confirms these findings and adds that 350 bronze bracelets, anklets, rings, axe and spear heads were distributed among about 2,000 other objects. The bronze seems to have appeared full blown without antecedent pure copper use. Whether this was brought in from the outside or developed locally is not known.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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