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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1501 to 1600

China and manchuria (ming dynasty to 1644, then ch'ing [manchu])

The Ming government reached its lowest point early in the century when the young, indecisive emperor, Hsi-Tsung, gave dictatorial power to Wei Chung-hsien, the most notorious palace eunuch of all Chinese history. He proceeded to brutally purge the government of all dissidents. In the first decades of the century the Jurchens, originally called Kin and now called "Manchus" gradually expanded into the modern provinces of Liaoning and Kirin and established a first capital at Mukden (subsequently Shenyang) from 1625 to 1644. The Manchus owed their nationhood to Nurhachi and his son Abahai, starting as petty tribal chieftains selling medicinal herbs to Chinese settlers in Manchuria. Abahai ended as the strong emperor at Mukden. (Ref. 101 ) From this base the Manchus subdued inner Mongolia in 1629 and made Korea a vassal state in 1637. At about the same time the Russian advance to the Pacific was stopped as these Manchurian people confronted them at the Amur River. The Manchus then headed south to China, where the population at 1600 was about 150 million or 2 1/2 times as great as it had been in 1368. Braudell (Ref. 260 ) points out that the early settlement and precipitous rise in population were-possible because of the small amount of meat eaten. When one adds up calories available for human consumption, agriculture on a given amount of land will always have the advantage over stock raising, feeding from 10 to 20 times as many people. "The choice between cereals and meat depends on the number of people."

Quotation from page 104, Braudel (Ref. 260 ) But also see next page re: protein deficiencies
Early 17th century warfare reduced the total population drastically, however, as after 1627 there were waves of rebellions following crop failures in the northwest. Disastrous droughts and plagues of locusts were among the natural disasters occurring and paralleling those in the France of Louis XIII.

The basic crop of China, of course, was rice, but occasionally a peasant could get in a wheat crop between his 2 yearly harvests of rice. The Chinese made a sort of heavy dough from the wheat, not knowing how to knead it and so it helped very little in their meager dietary supply. (Ref. 260 ) On the other hand, China had plenty of highly skilled artisans. The cotton works of Songjiang, south of Shanghai, employed 200,000 workers, not including tailoring and dressmaking, by the end of the century. Su-chi had between 3,000 and 4,000 silk-looms. (Ref. 292 ) Still by 1636 almost all of central, northern and northwestern China was in rebellion. In that same year 3 Portuguese cannon, hauled upon the Great Wall, put the Manchurian army to flight and gained another decade of life for the Ming Dynasty. Rebel leader Li Tzu-ch'eng from Honan and adjacent areas, took Peking in 1644 in spite of its wide, guarded walls. The last Ming emperor then committed suicide. We should note in passing that Peking participates in the cruel Siberian cold for 6 months of the year and thousands of Mandarins clothed themselves in expensive sable and had boots, saddles, chairs and tents made with those same skins. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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