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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1501 to 1600

China and manchuria (ming dynasty to 1644, then ch'ing [manchu])

The Ming government reached its lowest point early in the century when the young, indecisive emperor, Hsi-Tsung, gave dictatorial power to Wei Chung-hsien, the most notorious palace eunuch of all Chinese history. He proceeded to brutally purge the government of all dissidents. In the first decades of the century the Jurchens, originally called Kin and now called "Manchus" gradually expanded into the modern provinces of Liaoning and Kirin and established a first capital at Mukden (subsequently Shenyang) from 1625 to 1644. The Manchus owed their nationhood to Nurhachi and his son Abahai, starting as petty tribal chieftains selling medicinal herbs to Chinese settlers in Manchuria. Abahai ended as the strong emperor at Mukden. (Ref. 101 ) From this base the Manchus subdued inner Mongolia in 1629 and made Korea a vassal state in 1637. At about the same time the Russian advance to the Pacific was stopped as these Manchurian people confronted them at the Amur River. The Manchus then headed south to China, where the population at 1600 was about 150 million or 2 1/2 times as great as it had been in 1368. Braudell (Ref. 260 ) points out that the early settlement and precipitous rise in population were-possible because of the small amount of meat eaten. When one adds up calories available for human consumption, agriculture on a given amount of land will always have the advantage over stock raising, feeding from 10 to 20 times as many people. "The choice between cereals and meat depends on the number of people."

Quotation from page 104, Braudel (Ref. 260 ) But also see next page re: protein deficiencies
Early 17th century warfare reduced the total population drastically, however, as after 1627 there were waves of rebellions following crop failures in the northwest. Disastrous droughts and plagues of locusts were among the natural disasters occurring and paralleling those in the France of Louis XIII.

The basic crop of China, of course, was rice, but occasionally a peasant could get in a wheat crop between his 2 yearly harvests of rice. The Chinese made a sort of heavy dough from the wheat, not knowing how to knead it and so it helped very little in their meager dietary supply. (Ref. 260 ) On the other hand, China had plenty of highly skilled artisans. The cotton works of Songjiang, south of Shanghai, employed 200,000 workers, not including tailoring and dressmaking, by the end of the century. Su-chi had between 3,000 and 4,000 silk-looms. (Ref. 292 ) Still by 1636 almost all of central, northern and northwestern China was in rebellion. In that same year 3 Portuguese cannon, hauled upon the Great Wall, put the Manchurian army to flight and gained another decade of life for the Ming Dynasty. Rebel leader Li Tzu-ch'eng from Honan and adjacent areas, took Peking in 1644 in spite of its wide, guarded walls. The last Ming emperor then committed suicide. We should note in passing that Peking participates in the cruel Siberian cold for 6 months of the year and thousands of Mandarins clothed themselves in expensive sable and had boots, saddles, chairs and tents made with those same skins. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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