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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1401 to 1500

China and manchuria (continued ming dynasty)

The virulent form of syphilis, supposedly generated by the interaction of Columbus' men and the Caribbean Indians, reached China about 1505. (Ref. 140 , 260 ) The population about 1580 has been estimated at 130,000,000, although drastic reduction occurred at the end of the century by plague. New crops, including sorghum, sweet potato, maize, peanuts and Irish potatoes were helping to feed the people. Commerce was stimulated by silver from the new world, received in payment for extensive Chinese exports of tea, silk and ceramics. By 1600 the state had converted almost all its revenues to money in the form of silver. (Ref. 140 , 8 , 101 ) In contrast to the West, China had no gradual rise of bourgeoisie as the nature of the state almost prohibited this. A temporary exception might have occurred at the end of this century in the development of the large iron works near Peking and the private porcelain work shops of King-to-chen and the silk trade of Su-Chu. This all stopped with the Manchu conquest in the next century. (Ref. 260 )

Throughout its history China has usually had a command economy with prices and production centrally and rigidly controlled in one way or another

Even today this central command economy continues under the communist regime and has resulted in extensive economic and social woes, as explained by Fox Butterfield in China: Alive in the Bitter Sea (Ref. 280 )
. By making large scale private accumulation of capital difficult or impossible, the pace of economic development and technological innovation was markedly restricted. Thus in this century while European countries were developing new, better and cheaper weaponry, China held fast to large siege cannons and no one had the means or motive for developing gunpowder weaponry in new directions. The resulting lag behind European military and technological development cost them dearly in the long run. (Ref. 279 )

During the Ming Dynasty, about 1517, the Portuguese arrived at Canton with their guns. Being little better than pirates the Chinese treated them as such, although the foreigners did give some aid against other pirates. The Chinese thus finally rewarded them in 1557 by allowing them to settle Macao and to govern it. The Portuguese proceeded to build great opium factories employing men, women and children, all of which brought millions of dollars yearly to the Portuguese provincial government. They were followed by the Spanish, who after taking the Philippines, moved over to take the Chinese island of Formosa after 1571. The Dutch came still later.

It was probably in this century that the compilation of the Great Herbal in 52 volumes, with information about 1,200 herbs, was completed - an authoritative work in China still today. There are many medical adaptations from Chinese medicine in the western world, including iron for anemia, castor oil, lanolin, camphor, chaulmoogra oil, ephedra vulgaris and a method of inoculation with small pox matter for immunization against that disease

These materials all came from China, but not necessarily from this 16th century
.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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