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This module is a summary of the different stem cell policies from around the world. This module covers policies concerning derivation of embryonic stem cells, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning from around the globe.

North america

United states

  • Officially, embryonic stem cell research, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are legal as there is currently no federal regulation or policies overseeing it.
  • Reproductive and therapeutic cloning are specifically not federally funded. However, research on human embryonic stem cells is federally funded if these cell lines were created before August 9, 2001. Private industry research is not affected by these policies and is allowed to proceed with the creation of new stem cell lines.
  • Some individual states have made their own laws against reproductive and/or therapeutic cloning. (See State Cloning Legislation module)


  • Embryonic stem cell research is permitted, but reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning are banned.
  • Researchers can use an embryo from IVF if it is no longer needed for reproductive purposes and consent is given by the donor. Creating a human clone is restricted to improving or providing instruction in assisted reproduction procedures.

Costa rica

  • Embryonic stem cell research, as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning, is banned.
  • Any manipulation of an embryo's genetic code is prohibited, as well as any experimentation on the embryo (two laws as of 1995 and 1998).


  • Embryonic stem cell research is not specifically prohibited, but therapeutic and reproductive cloning and the funding of such activities are as of 2004.

Trinidad and tobago

  • Embryonic stem cell research as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning is banned.
  • The law states that the manipulation of ovum , zygotes , and/or embryos for the purpose of producing one that is genetically equivalent to a living or deceased human being, embryo, zygote, or fetus -- or implantation of this -- is prohibited. The ovum may not be retrieved to be fertilized, to mature outside of the human body, or to be implanted (as of 1999).

El salvador

  • Embryonic stem cell research as well as therapeutic and reproductive cloning is banned.

South america


  • Embryonic stem cell research is permitted, but all forms of cloning (reproductive and therapeutic) are banned.
  • The law specifically states that experiments concerning cloning of human cells in order to generate human beings are prohibited.


  • Embryonic stem cell research is allowed on IVF embryos that have been frozen for at least three years. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are banned (Bio-Safety Law, March 24, 2005).


  • Embryonic stem cell research is not specifically prohibited, but therapeutic and reproductive cloning and the funding of such activities are.
  • The law states that the cloning of human beings and interventions which results in the creation of a human being genetically identical to another is prohibited.


  • Embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning are permitted, but reproductive cloning is banned.
  • The criminal code (2000) prohibits fertilization of a human ovum with intent other than procreation and prohibits genetic manipulation for the purpose of reproductive cloning. The code does allow the fertilization of human ova for research and diagnostic purposes, if there is a therapeutic goal.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Stem cell research: a science and policy overview. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10445/1.1
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