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Next, choose Auto-->Rename Components . You silkscreen should look a lot different now.

Before Renaming
After Renaming

Since you have changed the reference designators in your design, you need to generate a swap file and perform back annotation. You should do this IMMEDIATELY . If you don’t, it can cause some serious problems for you later in the design. When you read the swap file into Capture, you may get errors on renaming the mounting holes. It is safe to ignore these.

Checking for errors

The next step in the design process is to check for any spacing errors. OrCAD uses the spacing variable that you set earlier to determine if there are errors in your design. We used 10 mil spacing from all features as a minimum for this design. To perform a Design Rule Check (DRC) choose Auto-->Design Rule Check… from the menu.

Make sure all the Check Rule Settings are checked and click OK . Your design will rarely contain no errors, and you will need to look at the errors spreadsheet to see what the errors are. Some can be safely ignored.

In this example there are four Pad Spacing Errors, one generated by each of the mounting holes. In this case OrCAD is complaining because the place outline for the part is on the edge of the board. This error is OK to ignore. If there are errors that need to be fixed, you can delete the marker from the spreadsheet. Let’s generate a route spacing error so you can see what it looks like. These are the most important. Move a trace anywhere in your design so that it conflicts with another trace or pad.

Now rerun the DRC. The new errors should appear in the spreadsheet.

You can remove the errors by moving the trace back to its original position. Once the error has been corrected, you can delete the marker from the errors spreadsheet. Do not try to use the Auto-->Remove Violations tool. It is tempting, but it will actually rip up offending traces and move parts. You will end up having to do a lot of cleanup and rerouting after using this tool.

Cleaning up&The design

Now it is time to clean up your design. You should think of your board as a work of art. Other people may look at it, so you want it to look nice. Furthermore, a clean design will ensure fabrication success. When cleaning the design, the following should be kept in mind.

A. Route Spacing – You have set a minimum of 10 mils for feature spacing in your design. However, do not pack traces closely together unless you have to. First, you can push the manufacturing limits to far and some of your boards may come back bad. Second, routing traces closely together is generally a bad idea because this can result in undesired mutual inductance between traces.

B. Right Angles in Traces – Don’t use right angles in routing your traces. Miter the corners.

BAD
GOOD

C. Pad Exits – Trace exits from pads should be clean and not come out of the pad at unusual angles.

BAD
GOOD

D. Remove Extra Vias – Vias add cost to a board, so it is a good practice to remove any unnecessary vias from your design.

E. Drills – Drills require some special attention. First, you need to fix the error you got earlier about the drills. This error occurs sometimes after you perform an ECO. To see the problem, make the Drill Drawing (DRD) layer visible. Press Backspace to clear the display and then Shift-5 to display just the DRD layer.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High-speed and embedded systems design (under construction). OpenStax CNX. Feb 18, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10212/1.12
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