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Brownlow’s experience as a city manager formed his vision of professional public administration at the federal level. The city manager concept as it developed during the early years of the twentieth century held that the often competing demands for accountability to an electorate and efficient management could be reconciled through the appointment of a specialist (often an engineer) who would oversee management of municipal departments while answering to elected officials rather than an electorate. Harold A. Stone, Don K. Price, and Kathryn H. Stone, City Manager Government in the United States: A Review After Twenty-five Years (Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1940). Brownlow established his Public Administration Clearing House as a means for communication and information exchange among public administrators about their experiences, both positive and negative, with the expressed objective of professionalizing public administration at all levels of government. During the late 1920s and particularly following the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the efforts of Brownlow and others to professionalize urban public administration came to the attention of several state governors, including Roosevelt in New York. In March 1936, Brownlow was named chairman of the President’s Committee on Administrative Management, and was in a position to try to implement his ideas at the federal level. The committee’s report was transmitted to President Roosevelt early in 1937, well before the November 1938 transmission of Relation of the Federal Government to Research .

Charles e. merriam

Barry D. Karl, Charles Merriam’s biographer, has characterized him as “an academic entrepreneur whose extraordinary sensitivities to the ideas of his times were combined with a willingness to govern the resources available for the development of those ideas to produce a phenomenon rare even in its day: a genuine school of thought.” Ibid . , viii.

Merriam’s principal methodological innovation as the first member (in 1903) of the University of Chicago’s political science department and eventual full professor and chair of that department was to give political science less theoretical and more empirical grounding. In particular, he made use of Chicago itself as a laboratory for field research, following the example set earlier by academic sociologists. His Non-Voting: Causes and Methods of Control , co-authored with his colleague H.F. Gosnell and published in 1924, marked “the public debut of what came to be known as the Chicago School.” Ibid., 148. This study, “utilizing a research staff of undergraduate as well as graduate students, studied the Chicago mayoralty campaign of 1923.” It was “the first major study in political science to use both random sampling and the statistics of attributes.”

Non-Voting and its underlying methodology drew largely favorable reactions from academic social scientists, and Chicago business and political leaders were impressed with the potential of such studies to serve as tools for urban planning. Merriam and his colleagues saw no conflict of interest in involving academic social scientists in business and government. After all, the European founders of the social sciences regarded them as a basis for social engineering that could result in rational policy developments. Part of a wave of politically engaged pre-World-War-II American social scientists, Merriam was active in Chicago politics. He was elected as an alderman, and in 1911 waged an unsuccessful campaign for mayor.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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