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Basic of strings

A string is a continuous sequence of characters terminated by '\0', the null character. The length of a string is considered to be the number of characters excluding the terminating null character. There is no string type in C, and consequently there are no operators that accept strings as operands.

Instead, strings are stored in arrays whose elements have the type char or wchar_t. Strings of wide characters that is, characters of the type wchar_tare also called wide strings . The C standard library provides numerous functions to perform basic operations on strings, such as comparing, copying, and concatenating them.

Declarations and uses of strings

You can initialize arrays of char or wchar_t using string literals. For example, the following two array definitions are equivalent:

char str1[30] = "Let's go"; // String length: 8; array length: 30.char str1[30] = { 'L', 'e', 't', '\'', 's',' ', 'g', 'o', '\0' };

An array holding a string must always be at least one element longer than the string length to accommodate the terminating null character. Thus the array str1 can store strings up to a maximum length of 29. It would be a mistake to define the array with length 8 rather than 30, because then it wouldn't contain the terminating null character.

If you define a character array without an explicit length and initialize it with a string literal, the array created is one element longer than the string length. An Example

char str2[ ] = " to London!";// String length: 11 (note leading space);// array length: 12.

The following statement uses the standard function strcat() to append the string in str2 to the string in str1. The array str1 must be large enough to hold all the characters in the concatenated string.

#include<string.h>char str1[30] = "Let's go";char str2[ ] = " to London!";/* ... */ strcat( str1, str2 );puts( str1 );

The output printed by the puts() call is the new content of the array str1:

Let's go to London!

The names str1 and str2 are pointers to the first character of the string stored in each array. Such a pointer is called a pointer to a string , or a string pointer for short. String manipulation functions such as strcat() and puts() receive the beginning addresses of strings as their arguments. Such functions generally process a string character by character until they reach the terminator, '\0'. The function in is one possible implementation of the standard function strcat() . It uses pointers to step through the strings referenced by its arguments.

Built-in functions for character and string processing

Character processing functions

The standard library provides a number of functions to classify characters and to perform conversions on them. The header ctype.h declares such functions for byte characters, with character codes from 0 to 255.

The results of these functions, except for isdigit() and isxdigit() , depends on the current locale setting for the locale category LC_CTYPE. You can query or change the locale using the setlocale() function.

Character classification functions

The functions listed in [link] test whether a character belongs to a certain category. Their return value is nonzero, or true, if the argument is a character code in the given category.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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