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    For any data set, no matter what the distribution of the data is:

  • At least 75% of the data is within two standard deviations of the mean.
  • At least 89% of the data is within three standard deviations of the mean.
  • At least 95% of the data is within 4.5 standard deviations of the mean.
  • This is known as Chebyshev's Rule.

    For data having a distribution that is bell-shaped and symmetric:

  • Approximately 68% of the data is within one standard deviation of the mean.
  • Approximately 95% of the data is within two standard deviations of the mean.
  • More than 99% of the data is within three standard deviations of the mean.
  • This is known as the Empirical Rule.
  • It is important to note that this rule only applies when the shape of the distribution of the data is bell-shaped and symmetric. We will learn more about this when studying the "Normal" or "Gaussian" probability distribution in later chapters.

References

Data from Microsoft Bookshelf.

King, Bill.“Graphically Speaking.” Institutional Research, Lake Tahoe Community College. Available online at http://www.ltcc.edu/web/about/institutional-research (accessed April 3, 2013).

Chapter review

The standard deviation can help you calculate the spread of data. There are different equations to use if are calculating the standard deviation of a sample or of a population.

  • The Standard Deviation allows us to compare individual data or classes to the data set mean numerically.
  • s = ( x x ¯ ) 2 n 1 or s = f ( x x ¯ ) 2 n 1 is the formula for calculating the standard deviation of a sample. To calculate the standard deviation of a population, we would use the population mean, μ , and the formula σ = ( x μ ) 2 N or σ = f ( x μ ) 2 N .

Formula review

s x = f m 2 n x ¯ 2 where s x =  sample standard deviation x ¯  = sample mean

Practice

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises : The following data are the distances between 20 retail stores and a large distribution center. The distances are in miles.
29; 37; 38; 40; 58; 67; 68; 69; 76; 86; 87; 95; 96; 96; 99; 106; 112; 127; 145; 150

Use a graphing calculator or computer to find the standard deviation and round to the nearest tenth.

s = 34.5

Find the value that is one standard deviation below the mean.

Two baseball players, Fredo and Karl, on different teams wanted to find out who had the higher batting average when compared to his team. Which baseball player had the higher batting average when compared to his team?

Baseball Player Batting Average Team Batting Average Team Standard Deviation
Fredo 0.158 0.166 0.012
Karl 0.177 0.189 0.015

For Fredo: z = 0.158  –  0.166 0.012 = –0.67

For Karl: z = 0.177  –  0.189 0.015 = –0.8

Fredo’s z -score of –0.67 is higher than Karl’s z -score of –0.8. For batting average, higher values are better, so Fredo has a better batting average compared to his team.

Use [link] to find the value that is three standard deviations:

  • above the mean
  • below the mean


Find the standard deviation for the following frequency tables using the formula. Check the calculations with the TI 83/84 .

Find the standard deviation for the following frequency tables using the formula. Check the calculations with the TI 83/84.

  1. Grade Frequency
    49.5–59.5 2
    59.5–69.5 3
    69.5–79.5 8
    79.5–89.5 12
    89.5–99.5 5
  2. Daily Low Temperature Frequency
    49.5–59.5 53
    59.5–69.5 32
    69.5–79.5 15
    79.5–89.5 1
    89.5–99.5 0
  3. Points per Game Frequency
    49.5–59.5 14
    59.5–69.5 32
    69.5–79.5 15
    79.5–89.5 23
    89.5–99.5 2
  1. s x = f m 2 n x ¯ 2 = 193157.45 30 79.5 2 = 10.88
  2. s x = f m 2 n x ¯ 2 = 380945.3 101 60.94 2 = 7.62
  3. s x = f m 2 n x ¯ 2 = 440051.5 86 70.66 2 = 11.14

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistics i - math1020 - red river college - version 2015 revision a - draft 2015-10-24. OpenStax CNX. Oct 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11891/1.8
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