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A new prep class was designed to improve SAT test scores. Five students were selected at random. Their scores on two practice exams were recorded, one before the class and one after. The data recorded in [link] . Are the scores, on average, higher after the class? Test at a 5% level.

SAT Scores Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4
Score before class 1840 1960 1920 2150
Score after class 1920 2160 2200 2100

The p -value is 0.0874, so we decline to reject the null hypothesis. The data do not support that the class improves SAT scores significantly.

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Seven eighth graders at Kennedy Middle School measured how far they could push the shot-put with their dominant (writing) hand and their weaker (non-writing) hand. They thought that they could push equal distances with either hand. The data were collected and recorded in [link] .

Distance (in feet) using Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7
Dominant Hand 30 26 34 17 19 26 20
Weaker Hand 28 14 27 18 17 26 16

Conduct a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean difference in distances between the children’s dominant versus weaker hands is significant.

Record the differences data. Calculate the differences by subtracting the distances with the weaker hand from the distances with the dominant hand. The data for the differences are: {2, 12, 7, –1, 2, 0, 4}. The differences have a normal distribution.

Using the differences data, calculate the sample mean and the sample standard deviation. x ¯ d = 3.71, s d = 4.5.

Random variable: X ¯ d = mean difference in the distances between the hands.

Distribution for the hypothesis test: t 6

H 0 : μ d = 0  H a : μ d ≠ 0


This is a normal distribution curve with mean equal to zero. Both the right and left tails of the curve are shaded. Each tail represents 1/2(p-value) = 0.0358.

Calculate the p -value: The p -value is 0.0716 (using the data directly).

(test statistic = 2.18. p -value = 0.0719 using ( x ¯ d = 3.71 ,   s d = 4.5. )

Decision: Assume α = 0.05. Since α < p -value, Do not reject H 0 .

Conclusion: At the 5% level of significance, from the sample data, there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a difference in the children’s weaker and dominant hands to push the shot-put.

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Five ball players think they can throw the same distance with their dominant hand (throwing) and off-hand (catching hand). The data were collected and recorded in [link] . Conduct a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean difference in distances between the dominant and off-hand is significant. Test at the 5% level.

Player 1 Player 2 Player 3 Player 4 Player 5
Dominant Hand 120 111 135 140 125
Off-hand 105 109 98 111 99

The p -level is 0.0230, so we can reject the null hypothesis. The data show that the players do not throw the same distance with their off-hands as they do with their dominant hands.

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Chapter review

A hypothesis test for matched or paired samples (t-test) has these characteristics:

  • Test the differences by subtracting one measurement from the other measurement
  • Random Variable: x ¯ d = mean of the differences
  • Distribution: Student’s-t distribution with n – 1 degrees of freedom
  • If the number of differences is small (less than 30), the differences must follow a normal distribution.
  • Two samples are drawn from the same set of objects.
  • Samples are dependent.

Questions & Answers

the power of the test is
Ejaz Reply
please can anyone help me solve these questions below? I need help please.
a)An investor wants to eliminate seven of the investments in her portfolio by selling 4 stocks and 3 bonds. In how many can these be sold if among 25 securities in the portfolio,13 are stocks and the rest bonds?
a)If a random variable has the standard normal distribution,what are the probabilities that it will take on a value: i)Less than 1.64 ii)Greater than-0.47
b)A random variable has a normal distribution with a mean of 60 and standard deviation 5.2.What are the probabilities that the random variable will take on a value: i)Less than 65.2 ii)Between 48 and 72?
b)If the probability that an individual suffers a bad reaction from injection of a given serum is 0.001,use the Poisson law to calculate the probability that out of 2000 individuals i)Exactly 3 individuals will suffer a bad reaction. ii)More than 2 individuals will suffer a bad reaction.
b)The breakfast menu serve data popular 5-star Hotel in Accra consists of the following items: Juice-Mango,Grape,Apple. Toast-Whitewheat,Whole wheat. Egg:Fried,Hard-boiled,Scrambled. Beverage:Coffee,Tea,Cocoa.
Continuation of the last question.Assist the Hotel manager to determine the number of possible breakfast combinations that can be served, one from each category
please I need help.
Are you answering the last question?
please you guys should help me I need it so badly
bias came in sampling due to
Muzammil Reply
sampling error
how do you find z if you only know the area of .0808
Cady Reply
construct a frequency distribution
How to take a random sample of 30 observations
Hamna Reply
you can use the random function to generate 30 numbers or observation
How we can calculate chi-square if observed x٫y٫z/frequency 40,30,20 Total/90
Insha Reply
calculate chi-square if observed x,y,z frequency 40,30,20total 90
find t value,if boysN1, ،32,M1,87.43 S1square,39.40.GirlsN2,34,M2,82.58S2square,40.80 Determine whether the results are significant or insignificant
The heights of a random sample of 100 entering HRM Freshman of a certain college is 157 cm with a standard deviation of 8cm. test the data against the claim that the overall height of all entering HRM students is 160 cm. previous studies showed that
Crispen Reply
complete the question.. as data given N = 100,mean= 157 cm, std dev = 8 cm..
Z=x-mu/ std dev
the power of the test is
find the mean of 25,26,23,25,45,45,58,58,50,25
Asmat Reply
add all n divide by 10 i.e 38
1 . The “average increase” for all NASDAQ stocks is the:
Jamshaid Reply
STATISTICS IN PRACTICE: This is a group assignment that seeks to reveal students understanding of statistics in general and it’s practical usefulness. The following are the guidelines; 1.      Each group has to identify a natural process or activity and gather data about/from the process. 2.     
Kofi Reply
The diameter of an electric cable,say, X is assumed to be continoues random variable with p.d.f f(x)=6x(1-x); ≤x≤1 a)check that f(X) is p.d.f b) determine a number b such that p(Xb)
Syed Reply
A manufacturer estimate 3% of his output is defective. Find the probability that in a sample of 10 items (a) less than two will be defective (b) more than two will be defective.
A manufacturer estimates that 3% of his output of a small item is defective. Find the probabilities that in a sample of 10 items (a) less than two and (b) more than two items will be defective.
use binomial distribution with parameter n=10, p= 0.03, q=0.97
the standard deviation of a symmetrical distribution is 7.8 . what must be the value of forth moment about the mean in order that distribution be a) leptokurtic b) mesokurtic c) platy kyrtic intrept the obtain value of a b and c
Tushar Reply
A researcher observed that four out of every ten of their products are normally defective. A total of 360 samples of the products were being tested. If the sample is normally distributed and 220 of the products were identified to be faulty, test the hypothesis that the observation of the res
Adepoju Reply
please answer the ques"following values are obtained from life table T15=3,493,601 and e°15=44.6 then expected number of person alive at exact age 15 will be "
make it clear
how x minus x bar is equal to zero
Kashif Reply
When the mean (X bar) of the sample and the datapoint-in-context (X) from the same sample are the same, then it (X minus X bar) is equal to 0
e.g. mean of. sample is 3 and one of the datapoints in that sample is also 3
a numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample such as a sample mean is known as
rana Reply

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