<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Nerves involved in the control of urination include the hypogastric, pelvic, and pudendal ( [link] ). Voluntary micturition requires an intact spinal cord and functional pudendal nerve arising from the sacral micturition center    . Since the external urinary sphincter is voluntary skeletal muscle, actions by cholinergic neurons maintain contraction (and thereby continence) during filling of the bladder. At the same time, sympathetic nervous activity via the hypogastric nerves suppresses contraction of the detrusor muscle. With further bladder stretch, afferent signals traveling over sacral pelvic nerves activate parasympathetic neurons. This activates efferent neurons to release acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions, producing detrusor contraction and bladder emptying.

Nerves innervating the urinary system

This image shows the female urinary system and identifies the nerves that are important in this system.

Ureters

The kidneys and ureters are completely retroperitoneal, and the bladder has a peritoneal covering only over the dome. As urine is formed, it drains into the calyces of the kidney, which merge to form the funnel-shaped renal pelvis in the hilum of each kidney. The hilum narrows to become the ureter of each kidney. As urine passes through the ureter, it does not passively drain into the bladder but rather is propelled by waves of peristalsis. As the ureters enter the pelvis, they sweep laterally, hugging the pelvic walls. As they approach the bladder, they turn medially and pierce the bladder wall obliquely. This is important because it creates an one-way valve (a physiological sphincter    rather than an anatomical sphincter    ) that allows urine into the bladder but prevents reflux of urine from the bladder back into the ureter. Children born lacking this oblique course of the ureter through the bladder wall are susceptible to “vesicoureteral reflux,” which dramatically increases their risk of serious UTI. Pregnancy also increases the likelihood of reflux and UTI.

The ureters are approximately 30 cm long. The inner mucosa is lined with transitional epithelium ( [link] ) and scattered goblet cells that secrete protective mucus. The muscular layer of the ureter consists of longitudinal and circular smooth muscles that create the peristaltic contractions to move the urine into the bladder without the aid of gravity. Finally, a loose adventitial layer composed of collagen and fat anchors the ureters between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall.

Ureter

A micrograph shows the lumen of the ureter.
Peristaltic contractions help to move urine through the lumen with contributions from fluid pressure and gravity. LM × 128. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of the University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Chapter review

The urethra is the only urinary structure that differs significantly between males and females. This is due to the dual role of the male urethra in transporting both urine and semen. The urethra arises from the trigone area at the base of the bladder. Urination is controlled by an involuntary internal sphincter of smooth muscle and a voluntary external sphincter of skeletal muscle. The shorter female urethra contributes to the higher incidence of bladder infections in females. The male urethra receives secretions from the prostate gland, Cowper’s gland, and seminal vesicles as well as sperm. The bladder is largely retroperitoneal and can hold up to 500–600 mL urine. Micturition is the process of voiding the urine and involves both involuntary and voluntary actions. Voluntary control of micturition requires a mature and intact sacral micturition center. It also requires an intact spinal cord. Loss of control of micturition is called incontinence and results in voiding when the bladder contains about 250 mL urine. The ureters are retroperitoneal and lead from the renal pelvis of the kidney to the trigone area at the base of the bladder. A thick muscular wall consisting of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle helps move urine toward the bladder by way of peristaltic contractions.

Questions & Answers

what are the components of cardiovascular system
Mwasiti Reply
Heart Blood Blood Vessel
Md
what is Hodgkin's disease
Mwasiti Reply
What is anatomy
Munira Reply
anatomy is a study of physical and structural functions of human body parts
Mohd
is the study of structure of the body and physical relationship involve between the body system
Mwasiti
is the study of structure of the body and physical relationship involve between the body system
Mwasiti
why simple columnar support peristalisis
Camilius Reply
why when sex of an individual is determined by y chromosome found in male therefore why there is many women than male
pamfili Reply
I'm not sure if I fully understand your question.
are you sure it is more
samir
i don't remember what I said.
I'm not sure if I fully understand your question.
roughly taking a lead.
samir
Muscle of mastication
JIMOH Reply
what is anatomy
Akanle
Sorry....it's the study of human body and it's functions.
Irene
Anatomy is the study of human organs
Kity
what is serum protein?
Salum
what is anatomy
Akanle
Anatomy is the study of human organs
Kity
Who is a bovin
Kity
Who is a bovin
Kity
Why do you ask tough questions I'm in JHS 3
Kity
pls does broken bones get healed
Desmond
yes
Belinda
how
Desmond
by surgery or medication
Desmond
Medication
Irene
why do a bovin not menstruate unlike women?
patrick
Why do you ask tough questions I'm in JHS 3
Kity
Anatomy is the study of structure of the human body
Belinda
yes
Belinda
medication
Belinda
yes
Belinda
animals within that group include cows as well as others.
ihope that was helpful
aaa,kity.bovin is a terminology used by veteranians to refer a cow.for dogs its carnine,cats it's ferline...etc
patrick
i believe if you look up the classification of Bovin , it tell clarify more for you.
ihope that was helpful
i don't think my first message about taxonomy sent
i don't think my first message about taxonomy sent
difference between seminiferous tubules and ejaculatory duct
Muhammad Reply
tell me the answer boss
Musibi
wats dis group
Kity
hhhhhhhxhxhmxkoshzhdvxznbxhhsklskhdhdh
Agemo Reply
what is azygous vein
Karan Reply
Sir muscle contraction ka topic kis part m milega
sonugora Reply
Sir muscle contraction ka topic kis part m milega
sonugora Reply
what is manipulated
Ambika Reply
life circle of RBC and the life circle of WBC.
Yemi Reply
RBC 120days
Zeph
RBC 120days and WBC 10-12days
sai
what is cardiac vascular system
Hari
what is anatomy?
Md Reply
what is manipulated
Ambika
anatomy is the branch of medical science which deal with the gross structure of body or organ
Ambika
note shoulder joint
jagadeesh
what is cardiovascular system
Hari
what is manipulated
Ambika
anatomical position
Ambika
?
Ambika
Scapula
sonugora
Study of internal structures
sonugora
the system of heart and vessels
Manar
what is collar Bone?
jagadeesh
positive feedback mechanism
Sirimala Reply

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask