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Although synovial joints share many common features, each joint of the body is specialized for certain movements and activities. The joints of the upper limb provide for large ranges of motion, which give the upper limb great mobility, thus enabling actions such as the throwing of a ball or typing on a keyboard. The joints of the lower limb are more robust, giving them greater strength and the stability needed to support the body weight during running, jumping, or kicking activities.

The joints of the vertebral column include the symphysis joints formed by each intervertebral disc and the plane synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Each of these joints provide for limited motions, but these sum together to produce flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation of the neck and body. The range of motions available in each region of the vertebral column varies, with all of these motions available in the cervical region. Only rotation is allowed in the thoracic region, while the lumbar region has considerable extension, flexion, and lateral flexion, but rotation is prevented. The atlanto-occipital joint allows for flexion and extension of the head, while the atlantoaxial joint is a pivot joint that provides for rotation of the head.

The temporomandibular joint is the articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the skull temporal bone. An articular disc is located between the bony components of this joint. A combination of gliding and hinge motions of the mandibular condyle allows for elevation/depression, protraction/retraction, and side-to-side motions of the lower jaw.

The glenohumeral (shoulder) joint is a multiaxial ball-and-socket joint that provides flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation of the humerus. The head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The glenoid labrum extends around the margin of the glenoid cavity. Intrinsic ligaments, including the coracohumeral ligament and glenohumeral ligaments, provide some support for the shoulder joint. However, the primary support comes from muscles crossing the joint whose tendons form the rotator cuff. These muscle tendons are protected from friction against the scapula by the subacromial bursa and subscapular bursa.

The elbow is a uniaxial hinge joint that allows for flexion/extension of the forearm. It includes the humeroulnar joint and the humeroradial joint. The medial elbow is supported by the ulnar collateral ligament and the radial collateral ligament supports the lateral side. These ligaments prevent side-to-side movements and resist hyperextension of the elbow. The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint that allows for rotation of the radius during pronation/supination of the forearm. The annular ligament surrounds the head of the radius to hold it in place at this joint.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint whose motions are more restricted than at the shoulder to provide greater stability during weight bearing. The hip joint is the articulation between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone. The acetabulum is deepened by the acetabular labrum. The iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments strongly support the hip joint in the upright, standing position. The ligament of the head of the femur provides little support but carries an important artery that supplies the femur.

Questions & Answers

The major digestive gland
Jasamin Reply
salivary gland present in mouth.
Sneha
yeah it's right answer
hanuman
salivary gland present in mouth secret amylase enzyme
Fahad
salivary gland
Ana
The neck is _____ to the navel.
Duchess Reply
connected
FAITH
connected
Fartun
.
Rachna
cranial
Sarah
the function of pancreatic juice is
Elastus
connected/attached
Fahad
function of pancreatic juice is to break down the sugar , fats and starches
Fahad
Superior
Jerry
attached
Okonkama
distal
Susan
lateral
Susan
connected
Ana
Describe the sequence of injuries that may occur if the extended, weight-bearing knee receives a very strong blow to the lateral side of the knee.
Dondon Reply
what is anotomy and waht is phesiology
chanbasha Reply
anatomy is classified the origin physiology is functional of origin
oHo
classified origin functional of origin
Sheryl
Anatomy is the origin of the human body Physiology is the function of the human body
Rose
Differentiate between pharmacist and apothecary
adanoor Reply
What is metatarsal
Ndotenyin Reply
bone of the foot is known as metatarsal
Patrick
yes 👆 right
Sneha
metatarsal (foot bone).....👍
Rishi
what is the meaning for cadavers
Malar
yes metatarsal are foot bone
Rakiya
the term "mental" pertain to which of the following a. chin b.navel c. ear d. nose e. skull
cris Reply
a
Lina
chin
Sneha
hi
Mohamed
skull
Monica
skull
Peter
chin
Kelly
skull
Juma
skull
Gul
skull
Laraib
skull
anwaar
skull
Nirmala
skull
Tessmol
chin
Derrick
mental chin nerve
Katarzyna
e. skull
Jennifer
skull
prince
e. skull
Natasha
It's not skull but chin
mwango
the skull
Rakiya
what are the three many components of the lymphatic system?
Milica Reply
those are...... organ, tissue and blood capillary or vessals
Juma
anatomical terms and use them appropriatly in the language of anatomy of anterior body landmarks
Teody Reply
what is human anatomy?
rascal Reply
lts stady structured human body's
Sa
what is the study of how the body functions?
Bright
What is human anatomy
Sherifat
human antomy is the body of structure
Malar
is the study of human body
Rakiya
what is abdomipelvic cavity?
david Reply
Includes all organs within the abdomen(stomach,intestines) and those from the pelvic region hence the name... abdomipelvic
Maureen
where can we find the short bones
Chidi Reply
Carpal bones are examples of short bones
Dara
what is blood supply
Chidi
on upper limb and lower limb
Juma
carpal bones
Priya
during pregnancy which would more increase size the mothers abdominal or pelvic cavity?
Nurmalyn Reply
pelvic cavity I think
Priya
What is anatomical position
Nwoye
pelvic
Maureen
@ Nwoye... when standing erect, feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
Maureen
The pelvic cavity
Rakiya
pelvic
Malar
define the main directional terms of the body
cris Reply
during physical exercise respiratory rate increace two student are discussing the mechanisms involved. student A claim they are positive feedback and student B claim negative feedback do you agree with student A or B and why
cris
what is the physiology of circulation
Chidi
please I mean the physiology of criculation
Chidi
blood flow refers to the movement of blood through the vessels from arteries to the capillaries and then to the veins
Laraib
the heart&the lungs
Rakiya
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
cris Reply
list and define the three plane of devision of the body
cris
complete the following statements using correct directional terms for human being. 1. the navel is________to the nose 2. the heart is______to the breastbone(sternum) 3 the ankle is______to the knee 4 the ear is______to the eyes.
cris
1. superior 2. posterior 3. superior 4. lateral
Mnm
anterior fuerior
Chidi
inferior medial posterior lateral we
Susan

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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