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Using the routine writetext.m (this file, which can be found on the website, uses the M atlab command fwrite ), write the Wizard of Oz text to a file OZ.doc . Use a compression routine ( uuencode on a Unix or Linux machine, zip on a Windows machine, or stuffit on a Mac) to compress OZ.doc . Note the file size when the file is in its compressed form,and the file size after decompressing. How does this compare with the compression ratio achieved in [link] ?

Channel coding

some redundancy to a signal before it is transmitted so that it becomes possible to detect when errors have occurredand to correct them, when possible.

Perhaps the simplest technique is to send each bit three times. Thus, in order to transmit a 0, the sequence 000is sent. In order to transmit 1, 111 is sent.This is the encoder . At the receiver, there must be a decoder . There are eight possible sequences that can be received,and a “majority rules” decoder assigns

000 0 001 0 010 0 100 0 101 1 110 1 011 1 111 1 .

This encoder/decoder can identify and correct any isolated single error and so the transmissionhas smaller probability of error. For instance, assuming no more than one error per block, if101 was received, then the error must have occurred in the middle bit, while if 110 was received,then the error must have been in the third bit. But the majority rules coding scheme is costly:three times the number of symbols must be transmitted, which reduces the bit rate by a factor of three.Over the years, many alternative schemes have been designed to reduce the probability of error in thetransmission, without incurring such a heavy penalty.

Linear block codes are popular because they are easy to design, easy to implement, and because they havea number of useful properties. With n > k , an ( n , k ) linear code operates on sets of k symbols, and transmits a length n code word for each set. Each code is defined by two matrices:the k by n generator matrix G , and the n - k by n parity check matrix H . In outline, the operation of the code is as follows:

  1. Collect k symbols into a vector x = { x 1 , x 2 , ... , x k } .
  2. Transmit the length n code word c = x G .
  3. At the receiver, the vector y is received. Calculate y H T .
  4. If y H T = 0 , then no errors have occurred.
  5. When y H T 0 , errors have occurred. Look up y H T in a table of “syndromes,” which contains a list of all possible received valuesand the most likely code word to have been transmitted, given the error that occurred.
  6. Translate the corrected code word back in to the vector x .

The simplest way to understand this is to work through an example in detail.

A ( 5 , 2 ) Binary linear block code

To be explicit, consider the case of a ( 5 , 2 ) binary code with generator matrix

G = 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

and parity check matrix

H T = 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 .

This code bundles the bits into pairs, and the four corresponding code words are

x 1 = 00 c 1 = x 1 G = 00000 , x 2 = 01 c 2 = x 2 G = 01011 , x 3 = 10 c 3 = x 3 G = 10101 , a n d x 4 = 11 c 4 = x 4 G = 11110 .

There is one subtlety. The arithmetic used in the calculation of the code words (and indeed throughout the linear block codemethod) is not standard. Because the input source is binary, the arithmetic is also binary.Binary addition and multiplication are shown in [link] . The operations of binary arithmetic may be more familiar as exclusive OR (binary addition), and logical AND (binary multiplication).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
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