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Innovation cycle in product, company, sector, and cluster.

Triple Helix

The triple helix of industry, academia and government is relatively mature concept in regional knowledge based economic development. The role of universities has been championed by many as playing a vital role in developing the knowledge economy (Goh 2005 , Dreyer and Kouzmin 2009, Nasto 2009). This is important both in regions with strong universities and knowledge clusters (e.g., MIT/Cambridge), and regions in a more developmental stage (e.g., Southwest Wales)

Universities: knowledge cluster anchor tenants

The linkages between academia and industry have received much interest over recent years by governments (WAG 2004, Lambert 2003), academics (Nelson 1986, Varga 2000) and other organisations including the private sector, though many commentators observe that it is the private sector that will deliver the fruits of innovation in the knowledge economy (Porter and Stern 1999).

The above studies recognise the importance of universities and academic knowledge in driving innovation and the knowledge economy. Nelson (1986) was one of the earliest to clearly demonstrate the positive effect of university on industry and technological advance, based on research undertaken in the US. This came at a time when American academia was undergoing the start of a seismic shift in technology transfer following the Bayh-Dole Act. This important pieced of legislation is regarded as a paradigm shift in US academia-industry relations for it clarified ownership of IP developed during research, and incentivised and charged universities to exploit its value.

Higher education institutions (HEIs) and public research facilities play a variety of roles in supporting the Knowledge-Based economy including ‘ knowledge production ’ developing new knowledge, ‘ knowledge transmission ’ – in developing human capital, and ‘ knowledge transfer ’ – by disseminating knowledge and supporting industry (OECD 1996, WAG 2004). HEIs are also recognised as important knowledge businesses that are often ‘anchor tenants’ in regional knowledge economies (WAG 2004). The importance of HEIs in supporting knowledge-based industrial clusters in their regions is acknowledged by the UK and Welsh Governments (DTI 2001 and WAG 2003b).

Challenges to collaboration

The opportunities and challenges for each region and individual collaboration are unique to its ambition, environment and the efforts invested. This context includes for example: the existing vibrancy of knowledge-based enterprise within the region; the presence of research activity allied to growth sectors; and the mobilisation of collective efforts within the region to develop the initiative.

It is possible to identify key factors that can affect the likelihood and potential extent of success for collaboration. These include individual and organisational factors as well as broader issues such as funding availability. For example, a first weakness lies in the way that the United Kingdoms Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) operates. The Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) is intended to recognise world-class research undertaken with business partners, as well as other forms of academic excellence. In practice, however, the assessment panels tend to concentrate on purely academic benchmarks, such as output in important journals. This may be partly because this kind of output is what most interests the people who sit on the peer review panels. It is also because such work is easier to measure than business collaboration. An article in an academic journal has by definition been through a rigorous process of assessment even before it appears, and can be judged against similar work from other sources. It is much harder to define what constitutes world-class research undertaken with business partners (Lambert 2003).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A study of how a region can lever participation in a global network to accelerate the development of a sustainable technology cluster. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11417/1.2
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