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3.In political models there is too much emphasis on conflict and a neglect of the possibility ofprofessional collaboration leading to agreed outcomes. The assumption that teachers are engaged in a calculated pursuit oftheir own interests underestimates the capacity of teachers to work in harmony with colleagues for the benefit of their pupils andstudents.

4.Political models are regarded primarily as descriptive or explanatory theories. Their advocates claim thatthese approaches are realistic portrayals of the decision-making process in schools and colleges. There is no suggestion thatteachers should pursue their own self-interest, simply an assessment, based on observation, that their behaviour isconsistent with apolitical perspective. Nevertheless, the less attractive aspects of political models may make them unacceptableto many educationists for ethical reasons.

Are political models valid?

Political models provide rich descriptions and persuasive analysis of events and behaviour in schools andcolleges. The explicit recognition of interests as prime motivators for action is valid, as are the concepts of conflict and power. Formany teachers and school leaders, political models fit their experience of day-to-day reality in schools. Lindle (1999), aschool administrator in the United States, argues that it is a pervasive feature of schools.

Subjective Models

Central features of subjective models

Subjective models focus on individuals within organizations rather than the total institution or its subunits.These perspectives suggest that each person has a subjective and selective perception of the organization. Events and situationshave different meanings for the various participants in institutions. Organizations are portrayed as complex units, whichreflect the numerous meanings and perceptions of all the people within them. Organizations are social constructions in the sensethat they emerge from the interaction of their participants. They are manifestations of the values and beliefs of individuals ratherthan the concrete realities presented in formal models (Bush, 2003):

Subjective models assume that organizations are the creations of the people within them. Participants arethought to interpret situations in different ways and these individual perceptions are derived from their background andvalues. Organizations have different meanings for each of their members and exist only in the experience of those members. (p.113)

Subjective models became prominent in educational management as a result of the work of Thomas Greenfieldin the 1970s and 1980s. Greenfield was concerned about several aspects of systems theory, which he regarded as the dominant modelof educational organizations. He argues that systems theory is“bad theory”and criticizes its focus on the institution as a concrete reality (Greenfield, 1973):

Most theories of organisation grossly simplify the nature of the reality with which they deal. The driveto see the organisation as a single kind of entity with a life of its own apart from the perceptions and beliefs of those involved init blinds us to its complexity and the variety of organisations people create around themselves. (p. 571)

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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