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Societal culture is one important aspect of the context within which school leaders must operate. They mustalso contend with organizational culture, which provides a more immediate framework for leadership action.

Central features of organizational culture

  • It focuses on the values and beliefs of members of organizations.“Shared values, shared beliefs, shared meaning, shared understanding, and shared sensemaking are all different waysof describing culture . . . These patterns of understanding also provide a basis for making one’s own behaviour sensible and meaningful”(Morgan, 1997, p. 138).
  • The cultural model focuses on the notion of a single or dominant culture in organizations but this does not necessarilymean that individual values are always in harmony with one another.“There may be different and competing value systems that create a mosaic of organizational realities rather than a uniform corporateculture”(Morgan, 1997, p. 137). Large, multipurpose organizations, in particular, are likely to have more than one culture (Schein,1997, p. 14).
  • Organizational culture emphasizes the development of shared norms and meanings. The assumption is that interaction betweenmembers of the organization, or its subgroups, eventually leads to behavioural norms that gradually become cultural features of theschool or college.
  • These group norms sometimes allow the development of a monoculture in a school with meanings shared throughout the staff -“the way we do things around here.”We have already noted, however, that there may be several subcultures based on the professional andpersonal interests of different groups. These typically have internal coherence but experience difficulty in relationships withother groups whose behavioural norms are different.
  • Culture is typically expressed through rituals and ceremonies, which are used to support and celebrate beliefs andnorms. Schools are rich in such symbols as assemblies, prize-givings and corporate worship.“Symbols are central to the process of constructing meanin.”(Hoyle, 1986, p. 152).
  • Organizational culture assumes the existence of heroes and heroines who embody the values and beliefs of the organization.These honoured members typify the behaviours associated with the culture of the institution. Campbell-Evans (1993, p. 106) stressesthat heroes or heroines are those whose achievements match the culture:“Choice and recognition of heroes . . . occurs within the cultural boundaries identified through the value filter . . . Theaccomplishments of those individuals who come to be regarded asheroes are compatible with the cultural emphases”(Bush, 2003, p. 160-162).

Moral leadership

Leaders have the main responsibility for generating and sustaining culture and communicating core values andbeliefs both within the organization and to external stakeholders (Bush, 1998, p. 43). Principals have their own values and beliefsarising from many years of successful professional practice. They are also expected to embody the culture of the school or college.Schein (1997) argues that cultures spring primarily from the beliefs, values and assumptions of founders of organizations.However, it should be noted that cultural change is difficult and problematic. Hargreaves (1999) claims that“most people”s beliefs, attitudes and values are far more resistant to change than leaderstypically allow”(p. 59-60).

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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