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The semi-diagrammatic map of Europe below demonstrates that if one eliminates Russia, the land mass involved is scarcely larger than the NEAR EAST. We should also note that the bulk of Europe lies at a latitude north of both the Black and the Caspian Seas and that only a small portion of Siberia lies farther north than European Russia. As indicated on the plate, these two portions of the Soviet Union have traditionally been separated by the Ural Mountain region. It is easy to see how early mariners from Norway and the British Isles could sail directly west to Iceland and then on to Greenland and America. Europe will be discussed in the text under several subdivisions which, in later centuries, will be further divided. These sections will be noted below.

Southern europe

This division will be discussed with four sub-sections. First will be the eastern Mediterranean islands which modern authorities are considering as the site of the first truly European societies (in contrast to being a part of the Near East), These include the Cyclades, Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus and even Malta. The second area will be Greece and the third the upper Balkans which includes present day Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romani and Albania. Historically other countries have occupied this region, such as Macedonia, Serbia, Thrace, etc. Lastly the division will have Italy, with some comments about Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica from time to time.

Central europe

Arbitrarily this will include five sub-sections - Germany, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Switzerland. Although Hungary and Czechoslovakia are now usually considered a part of eastern Europe because of present ideologies, we have put them in Central Europe because of their long political associations with Austria and Germany.

Western europe

These are the nations along the Atlantic coast, thus Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Belgium and finally the British Isles. The latter will be further broken down at times into England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.


In addition to the expected sub-sections of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, this division will include Finland. Although originally genetically different from the true Scandinavian countries, Finland was a part of Sweden for some 600 years and still has Swedish as one of its two official languages. On occasions there will also be comments about Iceland.

Eastern europe

This will include the southern Baltic countries such as Poland, Old Prussia, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as well as European Russia.

Europe (This map was obtained from (External Link) and is used with permission under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license .)

    Choose different region

  • Africa
  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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