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Throughout the peninsula the old Roman institutions were rather quickly abandoned and among the first to be dispensed with were those of law and medicine. For some reason not entirely clear, non-clerical physicians just ceased to exist. The Benedictine monks encouraged care of the sick but only through prayer could cure come, so St. Benedict forbade the study of medicine. (Ref. 49 , 125 )

Central europe

Germany and austria

The Slavic Wends had pushed into Germany as far as the Elbe River. West of the Elbe and Saal rivers were the surviving German tribes in the following locations, each retaining its own identity:

(a) Saxons in the north central region.

(b) East Franks along the lower Rhine.

(c) Thuringians between the Saxons and Franks.

(d) Marcomanni (Bavarians) along the middle Danube. They had migrated from Bohemia in this 6th century into an area of collapsing Ostrogoths.

(e) Suevi (Swabians) along and between the upper Rhine and upper Danube and along the northern Alps.

Of these tribes, the Franks were culturally of the greatest significance. Reinhardt (Ref. 177 ) says that this culture stands out as the fountainhead and pattern of the future German civilization. There is some disagreement concerning the language changes. Wells (Ref. 229 ) writes that the Franks were akin to the Anglo-Saxons in speaking a "low German" which later developed into Dutch and Flemish, but Reinhardt does not agree, stating that the Franks, Alemanni and Bavarians from A.D. 500 to 800 had the high German sound shift ("p" to "pf" or "f"; "t" to "ts", "z" or "s"; and "k" to "ch"), while Anglo-Saxon, Dutch, Flemish (Walloon) kept the original low or north German sounds. Clovis ruled the Franks until 511 and more about this dynasty will be found below under FRANCE.

By A.D. 560, Clovis' sons and grandsons had extended Frankish rule to take over dominance of Thuringia, Bavaria, Rhaetia and Alamannia in Germany as well as the Burgundian kingdom in Switzerland and southern France. There was little displacement of the native popuIations, however, and German and French developed as separate languages while the government remained in the hands of bishops and counts from the old Gallo-Roman aristocracy. The real power, however, remained with the Frankish army.

The migrating and raiding Avars (See HUNGARY and CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ASIA, this chapter) came in contact with the Franks on the Elbe in 562 at which time the Avar Khanate was perhaps one-half as large in north-south and east-west dimensions as the previous Hun Empire, but by A.D. 600 the Avars domain was almost as great as the Hunnish one, as they took over Hungary and most of Austria from the Gepids and the Lombards. By this time the Marcomanni had also reached lower Austria.

It is of some interest that falconry, although known from the Persian court as far back as 400 B.C., was really perfected in Europe by the Visigoths and Franks and became an important part of the hunting culture as well as an aristocratic pastime. (Ref. 122 )


History does repeat itself in Hungary. Just as the Huns had previously set up headquarters in Hungary now a new war band, fleeing from upheavals in central Asia and known as "Avars", established themselves on the Hungarian plain and launched raids far and wide, pushing the Lombards into Italy, the Slavs into the Balkans and allowing the Bulgars (another nomad tribe) to come along the lower Danube. These Avars, who raided Constantinople as well as western Europe from this base, were a mixture of Mongolian Juan Juan, pushed west by the Blue Turks, and various nomad Turkish or Hunnish tribes which they had picked up on their journey through northern Iran and the Russian steppe. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

a particle projected from origin moving on x-y plane passes through P & Q having consituents (9,7) , (18,4) respectively.find eq. of trajectry.
rahul Reply
definition of inertia
philip Reply
the reluctance of a body to start moving when it is at rest and to stop moving when it is in motion
An inherent property by virtue of which the body remains in its pure state or initial state
why current is not a vector quantity , whereas it have magnitude as well as direction.
Aniket Reply
the flow of current is not current
bcoz it doesn't satisfy the algabric laws of vectors
The Electric current can be defined as the dot product of the current density and the differential cross-sectional area vector : ... So the electric current is a scalar quantity . Scalars are related to tensors by the fact that a scalar is a tensor of order or rank zero .
what is binomial theorem
Tollum Reply
hello are you ready to ask aquestion?
Saadaq Reply
what is binary operations
What is the formula to calculat parallel forces that acts in opposite direction?
Martan Reply
position, velocity and acceleration of vector
Manuel Reply
*a plane flies with a velocity of 1000km/hr in a direction North60degree east.find it effective velocity in the easterly and northerly direction.*
hello Lydia.
What is momentum
A rail way truck of mass 2400kg is hung onto a stationary trunk on a level track and collides with it at 4.7m|s. After collision the two trunk move together with a common speed of 1.2m|s. Calculate the mass of the stationary trunk
Ekuri Reply
I need the solving for this question
is the eye the same like the camera
I can't understand
same here please
I think the question is that ,,, the working principal of eye and camera same or not?
yes i think is same as the camera
what are the dimensions of surface tension
why is the "_" sign used for a wave to the right instead of to the left?
why classical mechanics is necessary for graduate students?
khyam Reply
classical mechanics?
principle of superposition?
Naveen Reply
principle of superposition allows us to find the electric field on a charge by finding the x and y components
Two Masses,m and 2m,approach each along a path at right angles to each other .After collision,they stick together and move off at 2m/s at angle 37° to the original direction of the mass m. What where the initial speeds of the two particles
2m & m initial velocity 1.8m/s & 4.8m/s respectively,apply conservation of linear momentum in two perpendicular directions.
A body on circular orbit makes an angular displacement given by teta(t)=2(t)+5(t)+5.if time t is in seconds calculate the angular velocity at t=2s
2+5+0=7sec differentiate above equation w.r.t time, as angular velocity is rate of change of angular displacement.
Ok i got a question I'm not asking how gravity works. I would like to know why gravity works. like why is gravity the way it is. What is the true nature of gravity?
Daniel Reply
gravity pulls towards a mass...like every object is pulled towards earth
An automobile traveling with an initial velocity of 25m/s is accelerated to 35m/s in 6s,the wheel of the automobile is 80cm in diameter. find * The angular acceleration
Goodness Reply
(10/6) ÷0.4=4.167 per sec
what is the formula for pressure?
Goodness Reply
force is newtom
and area is meter squared
so in SI units pressure is N/m^2
In customary United States units pressure is lb/in^2. pound per square inch
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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