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The whole Roman realm had a short period of peace under one of the Balkan emperors, Probus, until his troops murdered him in 282. Then Diocles, or Diocletian, a man of genius and statesmanship became emperor and reorganized the empire. A native Illyrian and Dalmation soldier, he abandoned Rome and made his headquarters at Nicomedia, a few miles south of Byzantium in Asia Minor. He delegated control of the western half of the empire to his general, Maximian, as co-ruler in the city of Ravenna, Italy, and then made extensive political reforms including the division of the empire into four major prefectures and then forming further subdivisions as dioceses and finally provinces. (Ref. 28 ) At that time the empire was said to have 435,000 men under arms, chiefly infantry. Finally Diocletian, falling prey to the common curse of ancient men of power, claimed that he was the earthly embodiment of Jupiter, while Maximian consented to be Hercules. This identification of god and king meant the final failure of republican institutions of antiquity and a reversion to the forms and theories of Achaemenid and Egyptian courts. From this orientalized monarch came the structure and form of Byzantine and the European kingdoms until the time of the French Revolution. All that was needed now was to ally the oriental monarch in his oriental capital with an oriental faith. Byzantinism began with Diocletian. (Ref. 48 , 127 )

Central europe

As the Germanic tribes migrated westward, behind them the Slavs began to cross the Elbe and filter into modern Bohemia, Moravia and parts of eastern Germany. The Marcomanni, who were already in this area, raided westward and southward, even into Italy itself. The Frankish tribes invaded across the Rhine and along with the Alemanni also attacked directly into Italy. In battles from A.D. 270 to 275 the Emperor Aurelian finally stopped these invasions and held the Germanic tribes essentially at the Rhine once again. In the Pannonian diocese, which included most of Austria, Hungary and the western edge of Yugoslavia, the Asding branch of the Vandals had replaced the Iazygians as the dominant element in the southern portion, while the Gepids (related to the Goths) occupied the north. (Ref. 136 , 127 )

Western europe

Spain became a large scale producer of wine, olive oil and other products, including a delicious fish-paste. Some insurrections in this country, as in other parts of the empire, were eventually put down by Aurelian. Revolt leaders Postumus and Tetricus in Gaul were also eventually defeated. In Belgium the Franks swept the Gaulic Celts into the south, giving rise to the original language barrier with the northern Germanic tongue dominant at that time. In England, late in the century the pirates were so numerous around the coasts that Carausius, who happened to be a Belgian sailor, was assigned by the Roman authorities to clear the North Sea and the channel of these brigands. He did so, using mercenaries of Germanic and Frankish origin. But he made enemies in Rome and was murdered in A.D. 293 by his finance officer, Allectus, who then kept England independent of Roman control for three years, until Constantius Chlorus re-conquered the area using a new navy and fresh troops. (Ref. 8 , 43 , 136 , 24 )


In this area the most significant change from recent centuries was the replacement of all Lapps and Finns in Denmark by Germanic tribes by A.D. 250. Included in the latter group were the definitive Danes. Roman coins of the 3rd century have been found on Iceland, presumably taken there by the Roman Emperor Constans who sailed in pursuit of Celtic pirates who had raided Wales and then led their pursuer to an arctic island.

(Ref. 175 , 66 )

Eastern europe

Traveling from north to south in this region, we would find Finns in the sparsely settled far north, but south of them going from west to east along the Baltic, we would find first the Balts, then a large area of Slavs and finally, just north of the Black Sea, various Iranian tribes, including the Roxolani and Alans. By A.D. 300 the Ostrogoths had expanded eastward across the Ukraine to dominate the Roxolani, but otherwise there was not much change throughout this century with the possible exception that there may have been some Turkish-speaking Hunnish people already drifting into this area. (Ref. 136 , 127 )

Forward to Europe: A.D. 301 to 400

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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