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The medical school at Salerno, originally founded by Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino, although it was remarkably free from Christian dogmatism, reached its peak as a traveler from the Near East and India, known as Constantine the African, arrived to transfer the great works of learning from Arabic into Latin. This included the works of Galen. At Salerno, they developed the "Regimen of Health" which was to be disseminated throughout Europe by returning crusaders who visited there for treatment of illnesses and wounds. This formed the basis of much of European medicine until almost the end of the 16th century. The basic premise of this regime was a balanced diet with a parity of the "four humours"- air, fire, water and earth - or the body counterparts - blood, bile, phlegm and black bile. As an example: the elderly and children always suffered from an excess of water/phlegm, so anything cold and most fruit was forbidden

These ideas came from Galen (see pages 328,413 and 435), who claimed that his father had lived to be 100 years old because he never ate fruit (Ref. 211 )

Central europe

Before A.D. 1000 perhaps 4/5 of Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees was covered by dense forest so that communications and trade was greatly impeded except along the rivers and over certain passes. By A.D. 1000 the population may have reached 30,000,000 and in the next 150 years it increased another 40%. After the cessation of the Viking raids, the economic recovery of Europe was dramatic as new land was cleared, there was an increase in local trade and local "fairs" made their appearance. The use of iron plows may have made food more abundant, although intermittently famines still occurred in France and England. (Ref. 8 , 222 )


In 1002 Henry of Bavaria, became Henry II, King of all Germany and in 1014 he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Conrad II followed in 1024 as the first Salic Frank emperor and he added parts of the Kingdom of Burgundy and present day Switzerland to the empire. Henry III (Salian or Franconian), crowned in 1039, brought the empire to its zenith and Germany was the most prosperous region of Europe. The church was the educator Germany and in essence its administrator, also. Following Henry IlI's death, however, internal troubles developed, including a civil war with the opposition led by Rudolf of Swabia. Henry IV became the German king at age 6 years and his mother Agnes was regent for 9 years. During this time nobles and clerical magnates appropriated the royal resources and sovereign rights freely, dealing the final blow to the monarchy. This was also the time when Pope Gregory VII, Hildebrand, challenged the right of kings to appoint bishops and demanded that the emperor give up this power of appointment. The pope aligned the church with feudal estates and city-states, which led eventually to the collapse of the empire. When Rudolf died some of the civil strife ceased and the Franconian ruler again became temporarily more powerful, although the struggle with the papacy continued with the pope alternately excommunicating the emperor and the emperor appointing an anti-pope - activities which carried well into the next century. (Ref. 222 ) To return for a moment to Bavaria, in 1070 the now Emperor Henry IV gave the Bavarian fief to Guelph (also Welf) d'Este IV, who began the Guelph Dynasty.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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