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The medical school at Salerno, originally founded by Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino, although it was remarkably free from Christian dogmatism, reached its peak as a traveler from the Near East and India, known as Constantine the African, arrived to transfer the great works of learning from Arabic into Latin. This included the works of Galen. At Salerno, they developed the "Regimen of Health" which was to be disseminated throughout Europe by returning crusaders who visited there for treatment of illnesses and wounds. This formed the basis of much of European medicine until almost the end of the 16th century. The basic premise of this regime was a balanced diet with a parity of the "four humours"- air, fire, water and earth - or the body counterparts - blood, bile, phlegm and black bile. As an example: the elderly and children always suffered from an excess of water/phlegm, so anything cold and most fruit was forbidden

These ideas came from Galen (see pages 328,413 and 435), who claimed that his father had lived to be 100 years old because he never ate fruit (Ref. 211 )
.

Central europe

Before A.D. 1000 perhaps 4/5 of Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees was covered by dense forest so that communications and trade was greatly impeded except along the rivers and over certain passes. By A.D. 1000 the population may have reached 30,000,000 and in the next 150 years it increased another 40%. After the cessation of the Viking raids, the economic recovery of Europe was dramatic as new land was cleared, there was an increase in local trade and local "fairs" made their appearance. The use of iron plows may have made food more abundant, although intermittently famines still occurred in France and England. (Ref. 8 , 222 )

Germany

In 1002 Henry of Bavaria, became Henry II, King of all Germany and in 1014 he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Conrad II followed in 1024 as the first Salic Frank emperor and he added parts of the Kingdom of Burgundy and present day Switzerland to the empire. Henry III (Salian or Franconian), crowned in 1039, brought the empire to its zenith and Germany was the most prosperous region of Europe. The church was the educator Germany and in essence its administrator, also. Following Henry IlI's death, however, internal troubles developed, including a civil war with the opposition led by Rudolf of Swabia. Henry IV became the German king at age 6 years and his mother Agnes was regent for 9 years. During this time nobles and clerical magnates appropriated the royal resources and sovereign rights freely, dealing the final blow to the monarchy. This was also the time when Pope Gregory VII, Hildebrand, challenged the right of kings to appoint bishops and demanded that the emperor give up this power of appointment. The pope aligned the church with feudal estates and city-states, which led eventually to the collapse of the empire. When Rudolf died some of the civil strife ceased and the Franconian ruler again became temporarily more powerful, although the struggle with the papacy continued with the pope alternately excommunicating the emperor and the emperor appointing an anti-pope - activities which carried well into the next century. (Ref. 222 ) To return for a moment to Bavaria, in 1070 the now Emperor Henry IV gave the Bavarian fief to Guelph (also Welf) d'Este IV, who began the Guelph Dynasty.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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