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There were settlements of some type at Rome probably through the 10th and 9th centuries B.C., but the traditional date for the official settlement of Rome is always given as 753 B.C. Just across the Tiber the Etruscan city-state of Veii was formed by a coalition of villages between 750 and 700 B.C.. Ancient writers said that it had a population of 100,000 but this was undoubtedly an exaggeration, although it probably was as large as Athens. Veii had no metals, but became rich from agriculture and the salt beds at the mouth of the Tiber. Rock-cut arched drainage channels and tunnels, sometimes two miles long, were made to facilitate drainage and their roads were excellent.

Based on Herodotus' reports from Lydian sources, the traditional concept was that the Etruscans came from Lydia in Asia Minor, but almost all modern authorities feel that this is completely in error. (Ref . 75). McEvedy (Ref. 136 ) believes the Etruscans were natives of the old Iberian group and that their higher culture developed from early contact with Greeks who were interested in the Elban and Etrurian iron and copper deposits. This view is strengthened by the Cambridge University Encyclopedia of Archeology (Ref. 45 ) which says that the 10,000 known Etruscan inscriptions belong to an old Mediterranean substratum still largely undeciphered. Michael Grant (Ref . 75) gave further documentation of this view in 1980. It is of interest that non-Indo-European languages were also spoken by the Ligurians and Raetians of northern Italy, the Corsicans, Sardinians and the Sicans of western Sicily. Tharros was a Phoenician port on the west side of Sardinia which received gold from Spain and then traded it extensively with the Etruscan cities for their own metal and agricultural products. It was the wealthiest of all the Sardinian cities, with multiple workshops for production of gold, silver, precious gem jewelry and ornaments. (Ref. 75 ) Bronze objects from these Sardinian workshops were arriving at Etruscan harbors throughout the 9th and 8th centuries B.C. In other parts of Italy, proper, there were the Iron Age groups of Picentes, Veneti and Iapyges. Some Etruscan city-states, particularly Volaterrae and Clusium, also extended their trade and influence north into the Transalpine regions. By 750 B.C., under this impulse, Felsina

"Felsina" was an Etruscan name, later called "Bononia" by Romans, after the conquering Boii Gaulic tribe.It is now "Bologna".
had become an economic power, as an amalgamation of villages with easy access to Etruria.

Central europe

About 1,000 B.C. various branches of the Urnfield Culture, a group of related tribes with common culture and burial practices, dominated the Rhine/Danube axis, and began to expand into valleys of the main river thoroughfares. Four main branches gave rise to important groups of historic peoples: Celts in the west along the upper Main, Moselle and the Rhone, Slavs in the north from the Elbe to east of the Oder, Italic-speakers in the region of Hungary and Illyrians in the southeast about the river Tisza and Muresul. (Ref. 8 ) Some would say that the Celts did not really emerge as a distinct people of common language, religion and culture until about the 8th century B.C., and as manifested in the Hallstadt Culture (800-500 B.C.)

Herm (Ref. 91 ) dates the Hallstadt Culture from 700 to 450 B.C.
, located near the richest salt deposits in Europe and definitely influenced by the Etruscans from the south. In 1846 some 1,100 graves were opened in the Nieder as well as the Hallstadt regions of Austria, showing the extensive iron utilization and decoration of this Celtic Age. The Celts were energetic and inventive, using iron for tools and weapons. "They introduced soap to the Greeks and Romans, invented chain armor, were first to shoe horses and give shape to hand saws, chisels, files and other tools we use today. They developed seamless iron rims for their wheels, set our standard 4 feet 8 1/2 inch railroad gauge with the span of their chariots, pioneered the iron plowshare, the rotary flour mill, a wheeled harvester two millennia before Cyrus McCormick
From Merle Severy (Ref. 194 ), page 588.
.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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