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Healthcare professionals in laboratories are reluctant to release data because of cost and also because they lose some control over the data they have produced. An alternative is for clients to query databases of the pathology laboratories. A grid, federating the laboratories, would provide a secure framework enabling the screening associations to query databases and fill their local patient files (De Vlieger et al. 2009). No action is required by physicians to put their data on the network. Thanks to the grid security architecture, the cytopathologists are able to define and modify the access rights of the users querying their data.

Several projects in Europe have studied or are currently exploring the advantages of grid technology with regard to breast cancer, particularly computer-aided diagnosis of mammograms, most notably the e-Diamond (Brady et al. 2003 ) and MammoGrid (Warren et al. 2007) projects. If a sentinel network is able to federate pathology databases, it can be used by the epidemiological services of the National Institute for Health Surveillance (Institut National de Veille Sanitaire) and the regional epidemiological observatory. In the present case, it means that women could consult their own data in the pathology laboratories as well as see mammographic images stored in the radiology services through the proposed network. A cancer surveillance network is presently being implemented in the Auvergne region in France within the framework of the AuverGrid regional grid initiative (http://www.auvergrid.fr). It uses grid technology developed by EGEE, such as the AMGA metadata catalogue (Koblitz, Santos and Pose 2008) and the MDM Medical Data Manager (Montagnat et al. 2006), as well as by the Health-e-Child project, for example, the Pandora Gateway (http://www.health-e-child.org).

Case study 2 - application in radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is one of the three major treatments for cancer. It has demonstrated its efficacy in curing cancer and is also the most cost effective strategy. From a technology point of view, radiotherapy is a highly complex procedure, involving many computational operations for data gathering, processing and control. The treatment process requires large amounts of data from different sources that vary in nature (physics, mathematics, biostatistics, biology and medicine), which makes it an ideal candidate for healthgrid applications. Nowadays, in radiotherapy and brachytherapy, commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) use an analytical calculation to determine dose distributions near the tumor and organs at risk. Such codes are very fast (execution time below one minute to give the dose distribution of a treatment), which makes them suitable for use in medical centres.

For some specific treatments using very thin pencil beams (IMRT) and/or in the presence of heterogeneous tissues such as the air-tissue, lung-tissue and bonetissue interfaces, it appears that Monte Carlo simulations are the best way to compute complex cancer treatment by keeping errors in the dose calculation below 2%. The accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation is excellent, provided that the computing power is sufficient to allow for extreme reduction of statistical noise. In order to finish MC computations within an acceptable time period for interactive use, parallel computing over very many CPUs has to be available. In this way, MC dose computations could become standard for radiotherapy quality assurance, planning and plan optimisation years before individual departments could afford local investment that is able to support MC. With the objective of making Monte Carlo dose computations the standard method for radiotherapy quality assurance, planning and plan optimisation, we are participating in the development of a Monte Carlo platform dedicated to SPECT, TEP, radiotherapy and brachytherapy simulations together with 21 other research laboratories which are involved in the international collaboration OpenGATE (http://www. opengatecollaboration.org, Jan et al. 2004). This GATE software with its accuracy and flexibility was made available to the public in 2004 and now has a community of over 1000 users worldwide.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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