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Cycloaddition is another powerful tool to functionalize fullerenes, in particular because of its selectivity with the 6,6 bonds, limiting the possible isomers ( [link] ). The dienophilic feature of the [6,6] double bonds of C 60 enables the molecule to undergo various cycloaddition reactions in which the monoadducts can be generated in high yields. The best studies cycloadditon reactions of fullerene are [3+2] additions with diazoderivatives and azomethine ylides (Prato reactions). In this reaction, azomethine ylides can be generated in situ from condensation of α-amino acids with aldehydes or ketones, which produce 1,3 dipoles to further react with C 60 in good yields ( [link] ). Hundreds of useful building blocks have been generated by those two methods. The Prato reactions have also been successfully applied to carbon nanotubes.

Geometrical shapes built onto a [6,6] ring junction: a) open, b) four-membered ring, c) five-membered ring, and d) six-membered ring.
Prato reaction of C 60 with N-methyglycine and paraformaldehyde.

The oxidation of fullerenes, such as C 60 , has been of increasing interest with regard to applications in photoelectric devices, biological systems, and possible remediation of fullerenes. The oxidation of C 60 to C 60 O n (n = 1, 2) may be accomplished by photooxidation, ozonolysis, and epoxidation. With each of these methods, there is a limit to the isolable oxygenated product, C 60 O n with n<3. Highly oxygenated fullerenes, C 60 O n with 3 ≤ n ≤ 9, have been prepared by the catalytic oxidation of C 60 with ReMeO 3 /H 2 O 2 .

Carbon nanotubes

A key breakthrough in carbon nanochemistry came in 1993 with the report of needle-like tubes made exclusively of carbon. This material became known as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). There are several types of nanotubes. The first discovery was of multi walled tubes (MWNTs) resembling many pipes nested within each other. Shortly after MWNTs were discovered single walled nanotubes (SWNTs) were observed. Single walled tubes resemble a single pipe that is potentially capped at each end. The properties of single walled and multi walled tubes are generally the same, although single walled tubes are believed to have superior mechanical strength and thermal and electrical conductivity; it is also more difficult to manufacture them.

Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are by definition fullerene materials. Their structure consists of a graphene sheet rolled into a tube and capped by half a fullerene ( [link] ). The carbon atoms in a SWNT, like those in a fullerene, are sp2 hybridized. The structure of a nanotube is analogous to taking this graphene sheet and rolling it into a seamless cylinder. The different types of SWNTs are defined by their diameter and chirality. Most of the presently used single-wall carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by the pulsed laser vaporization method, however, increasingly SWNTs are prepared by vapor liquid solid catalyzed growth.

Structure of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with (a) armchair, (b) zig-zag, and (c) chiral chirality.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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