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Human activity can disrupt the natural balance of the water cycle. The buildup of salts that results from irrigating with groundwater can cause soil infertility and irrigation can also deplete underground aquifers causing land subsidence or salt water intrusion from the ocean. The clearing of land for farming, construction, or mining can increase surface runoff and erosion, thereby decreasing infiltration. Increasing human populations and their concentration in certain geographic localities will continue to stress water systems. Careful thought is needed on local, regional and global scales regarding the use and management of water resources for wetlands, agriculture, industry and home.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is the basic building block of all organic materials, and therefore, of living organisms. However, the vast majority of carbon resides as inorganic minerals in crustal rocks. Other reservoirs of carbon include the oceans and atmosphere. Several physical processes affect carbon as it moves from one reservoir to another. The inter-relationships of carbon and the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and crustal earth -- and the processes affecting it -- are described by the carbon cycle .

The carbon cycle is actually comprised of several inter-connected cycles. The overall effect is that carbon is constantly recycled in the dynamic processes taking place in the atmosphere, at the surface and in the crust of the earth. For example, the combustion of wood transfers carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is taken in by plants and converted to nutrients for growth and sustenance. Animals eat the plants for food and exhale carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when they breathe.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean where it eventually precipitates as carbonate in sediments. The ocean sediments are sub ducted by the actions of plate tectonics , melted and then returned to the surface during volcanic activity. Carbon dioxide gas is released into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Some of the carbon atoms in your body today may long ago have resided in a dinosaur's body, or perhaps were once buried deep in the earth's crust as carbonate rock minerals.

The main carbon cycling processes involving living organisms are photosynthesis and respiration. These processes are actually reciprocal to one another with regard to the cycling of carbon: photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and respiration returns it. A significant disruption of one process can therefore affect the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

During a process called photosynthesis , raw materials are used to manufacture sugar. Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of chlorophyll , a green plant pigment that helps the plant utilize the energy from sunlight to drive the process. Although the overall process involves a series of reactions, the net reaction can be represented by the following:

The sugar provides a source of energy for other plant processes and is also used for synthesizing materials necessary for plant growth and maintenance. The net effect with regard to carbon is that it is removed from the atmosphere and incorporated into the plant as organic materials.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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