# 4.2 Java1483-spectrum analysis using java, frequency resolution  (Page 10/19)

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As you can see from Listing 6 , the values that make up the pulse are produced by adding together the values of two different cosine functions having differentfrequencies. The values for freq1 and freq2 are as described above.

You can view the remainder of this program in Listing 11 .

## Spectral analysis output

The results of running the program named Dsp032 and displaying the results with the program named Graph03 are shown in Figure 5 .

Figure 5. Spectral analyses of five pulses.

Each of the peaks in the third, fourth, and fifth plots in Figure 5 corresponds to the frequency of one of the two sinusoids that were addedtogether to produce the pulses shown in Figure 4 .

## Can we answer the original question now?

The question posed in the original hypothetical situation was "how long must the operating bursts of this device be in order for you to resolve the peaks and identify the enemy submarine under ideal conditions?"

We are looking at very ideal conditions in Figure 4 and Figure 5 . In particular, the pulses exist completely in the absence of noise.

(The existence of wide-band noise added to the pulses in Figure 4 would cause a change in the spectral results in Figure 5 . That change might be described as having the appearance of grass and weeds growing on thebaseline across the entire spectrum. The stronger the wide-band noise, the taller would be the weeds.)

## Cannot resolve two peaks for first two pulses

Clearly for the ideal condition of recording the bursts in the total absence of noise, you cannot resolve the peaks from the top two plots in Figure 5 . For those two pulses, the spectral peaks simply merge together to form a singlebroad peak. Therefore, for this amount of separation between the frequencies of the two sinusoids, the lengths of the first two pulses in Figure 4 are insufficient to allow for separation and identification of the separate peaks.

## We must be in luck

We seem to have the problem bracketed. (Were we really lucky, or did I plan it this way?) Under the ideal conditions of this experiment, the peaks are separable in the middle plot of Figure 5 . Thus, for the amount of separation between the frequencies of the two sinusoids, the length of the third pulse is Figure 4 is sufficient to allow for separation and identification of the separate peaks.

## A qualified answer to the question

The peaks are even better separated in the bottom two plots in Figure 5 . For the five pulses used in this experiment and the amount of separation between thefrequencies of the two sinusoids, any pulse as long or longer than the length of the third pulse is Figure 4 is sufficient to allow for separation and identification of the separate peaks.

## What about the effects of noise?

If you were to add a nominal amount of wide-band noise to the mix, it would become more difficult to resolve the peaks for the bottom three plots in Figure 5 because the peaks would be growing out of a bed of weeds.

(If you add enough wide-band noise, you couldn't resolve the peaks using any of the plots, because the peaks would be completely "lost in thenoise.")

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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