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All was forgiven at the end of the century when the great Klondike and Nome gold rushes developed. (Ref. 234 , 199 )

Alaska's northwest contained some 24 Eskimo groups, all speaking related tongues.

Unlike their European and Siberian counterparts these Americans relied more on sea mammals than on the new world reindeer (caribou). Seals, walruses and sea-lions supplied food, clothes, boats, tents and oil for lamps. Tendons were used for sewing and bones took the place of wood. The Eskimos introduced umiaks (large, open, skin boats) and the toggle-headed harpoon to the world. (Ref. 288 )


Central Greenland remained the most inhospitable of all Arctic areas, but Eskimos did live all along the southern coasts, both east and west, with a hybrid Eskimo-Danish culture. Due to an oversight at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when Norway was taken away from Denmark, this colony was overlooked and remained in Danish hands. Administration was poor, however, and among other troubles the natives had a high incidence of tuberculosis. In far northwest Greenland a group known simply as Polar Eskimos lived in complete isolation, using sea-mammal bones for sled runners and using nets to catch cliff-dwelling birds. There were about 150 people there when Europeans discovered them in 1818. (Ref. 38 , 288 )


Arctic Canada had a mixture of Inuit (Eskimo) people living chiefly north of the tree-line and Arctic Indians living just south of that region. Among the latter were the Kutchins, who walked hundreds of miles each summer after the caribou herds. In winter they used snow-shoes and lived in domed caribou-skin tents or log and moss houses. They traded with the Eskimos. Koyukon, Tchin and Chipwyan tribes were all part of those Kutchin people. Inuit Eskimos lived on the Arctic Ocean coast line from Beaufort Sea to the Baff in Bay and Davis Strait as well as on the northern shores of Hudson Bay. (Ref. 288 )

In 1825 British North America consisted of 2 major areas: First, there were the six settled provinces of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Lower and Upper Canadas; and second there was all the remaining territory from Hudson's Bay on west to the Pacific. The first 4 named were known as the Maritime provinces; Lower Canada was later to become Quebec and had 625,000 chief Iy French people in 1841, while upper Canada later became Ontario and had 455,700 population in the same year. The western territory was owned by the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Company with the British government keeping some authority. Each province was ruled by a local Tory oligarchy which supported the governor.

Occasionally an attempt to gain independence sprouted, such as the revolt promoted by Louis Joseph Papineau

Strangely enough, Papineau took no part in the actual uprisings, as he first fled to the United States for help and thwarted there, went on to France. (Ref. 38 )
, an assemblyman, John Neilson, a Scots and Edmund O'Callaghan, an Irishman - in Quebec. Papineau's fatal error was in alienating priests by anticlerical outbursts and when the bishop came out against him, few French Canadians would follow him. In Ontario an uprising of 1836 came nearer success. This was led by William Lyon MacKenzie of Toronto and Marchall Bidwell, a fugitive from the United States. The rebels marched on Toronto, but were dispersed by one volley from some militia. In May of 1838 Queen Victoria sent the young Earl of Durham to be commissioner of British North America and he adopted a course of clemency to the rebels. Through his recommendations Canada was given responsible government with a ministry responsible to an elective assembly. Nova Scotia obtained creditable government in 1848 without a rebellion through the statesmanship of Joseph Howe, son of a Bostonian. The governments of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island underwent similar peaceful evolution.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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