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All was forgiven at the end of the century when the great Klondike and Nome gold rushes developed. (Ref. 234 , 199 )

Alaska's northwest contained some 24 Eskimo groups, all speaking related tongues.

Unlike their European and Siberian counterparts these Americans relied more on sea mammals than on the new world reindeer (caribou). Seals, walruses and sea-lions supplied food, clothes, boats, tents and oil for lamps. Tendons were used for sewing and bones took the place of wood. The Eskimos introduced umiaks (large, open, skin boats) and the toggle-headed harpoon to the world. (Ref. 288 )


Central Greenland remained the most inhospitable of all Arctic areas, but Eskimos did live all along the southern coasts, both east and west, with a hybrid Eskimo-Danish culture. Due to an oversight at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when Norway was taken away from Denmark, this colony was overlooked and remained in Danish hands. Administration was poor, however, and among other troubles the natives had a high incidence of tuberculosis. In far northwest Greenland a group known simply as Polar Eskimos lived in complete isolation, using sea-mammal bones for sled runners and using nets to catch cliff-dwelling birds. There were about 150 people there when Europeans discovered them in 1818. (Ref. 38 , 288 )


Arctic Canada had a mixture of Inuit (Eskimo) people living chiefly north of the tree-line and Arctic Indians living just south of that region. Among the latter were the Kutchins, who walked hundreds of miles each summer after the caribou herds. In winter they used snow-shoes and lived in domed caribou-skin tents or log and moss houses. They traded with the Eskimos. Koyukon, Tchin and Chipwyan tribes were all part of those Kutchin people. Inuit Eskimos lived on the Arctic Ocean coast line from Beaufort Sea to the Baff in Bay and Davis Strait as well as on the northern shores of Hudson Bay. (Ref. 288 )

In 1825 British North America consisted of 2 major areas: First, there were the six settled provinces of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Lower and Upper Canadas; and second there was all the remaining territory from Hudson's Bay on west to the Pacific. The first 4 named were known as the Maritime provinces; Lower Canada was later to become Quebec and had 625,000 chief Iy French people in 1841, while upper Canada later became Ontario and had 455,700 population in the same year. The western territory was owned by the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Company with the British government keeping some authority. Each province was ruled by a local Tory oligarchy which supported the governor.

Occasionally an attempt to gain independence sprouted, such as the revolt promoted by Louis Joseph Papineau

Strangely enough, Papineau took no part in the actual uprisings, as he first fled to the United States for help and thwarted there, went on to France. (Ref. 38 )
, an assemblyman, John Neilson, a Scots and Edmund O'Callaghan, an Irishman - in Quebec. Papineau's fatal error was in alienating priests by anticlerical outbursts and when the bishop came out against him, few French Canadians would follow him. In Ontario an uprising of 1836 came nearer success. This was led by William Lyon MacKenzie of Toronto and Marchall Bidwell, a fugitive from the United States. The rebels marched on Toronto, but were dispersed by one volley from some militia. In May of 1838 Queen Victoria sent the young Earl of Durham to be commissioner of British North America and he adopted a course of clemency to the rebels. Through his recommendations Canada was given responsible government with a ministry responsible to an elective assembly. Nova Scotia obtained creditable government in 1848 without a rebellion through the statesmanship of Joseph Howe, son of a Bostonian. The governments of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island underwent similar peaceful evolution.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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