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Before we proceed with creating technology staff development programs, we must also agree to the importance of support and supervision during the implementation of new programs. Educators (Glatthorn, 1995; Rebore, 1998) point to the fact that a major reason why teachers perceive professional development activities as ineffective is because they receive little support for implementing newly acquired skills and ideas, and a lack of supervision during implementation.

Can technology support and encourage constructivist practices?

Considering our second question, first recall the basic principles of constructivist teaching and learning. Let’s begin to interconnect technology to the picture as we begin thinking about effective teacher development programs. Teachers can use technology to engage students in more meaningful learning than is presently occurring in many classrooms today. Technology can assist with providing meaning to students in a social context accompanied by interaction between the learner and other people. With careful planning of professional development programs, principals can successfully fulfill their significant and powerful role in improving teaching and learning.

To assist us in creating appropriate technology staff development programs for our schools, we will visit an American Association for Curriculum Development document (ASCD, 1993) entitled, In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Of particular interest is an article written by Grennon Brooks and Martin Brooks, entitled, Becoming a Constructivist Teacher, which outlines 12 descriptors of constructivist teachers. These descriptors can serve as a framework for the design of effective technology staff development programs.

Descriptor 1

Contructivist teachers encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative. Though we contend that students should be given the freedom and choice to explore concepts and information on their own and take responsibility for their own learning, much evidence exists that this is not truly the case in many classrooms in regard to the use of technology. Too often, computer assignments consist of passive drill and practices activities with little opportunity for students to display autonomy and initiative.

Descriptor 2

Constructivist teachers use raw data and primary sources, along with manipulative, interactive, and physical materials. This descriptor focuses on the students using real-world data and other information to generate their own explanation and inferences about existing problems in our world. When teachers encourage students to wrestle with their own interpretation of existing phenomena, students must move beyond the usual practice of drill and practice, providing opportunities to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. Observing the common software used in many classrooms, one notices a lack of opportunity for students to experience multiple perspectives or critical thinking.

Descriptor 3

When framing tasks, constructivist teachers use cognitive terminology such as“classify,”“analyze,”“predict,”and“create.”Much of what transpires in today’s classrooms involves multiple choice, such as asking students to select the correct answer from a list of options. Correct answers are provided quickly and too willingly by teachers. Observing what happens in the classroom in regards to the use of technology reveals a similar practice. Students have little opportunity to predict or create their own interpretation of solutions to problems or endings to stories. Analyzing, interpreting, predicting, and synthesizing are mental activities that require students to make connections, delve deeply into texts and contexts, and create new understandings (Brooks&Brooks, 1993)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, School personnel administration and instructional supervision. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10627/1.3
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