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Before we proceed with creating technology staff development programs, we must also agree to the importance of support and supervision during the implementation of new programs. Educators (Glatthorn, 1995; Rebore, 1998) point to the fact that a major reason why teachers perceive professional development activities as ineffective is because they receive little support for implementing newly acquired skills and ideas, and a lack of supervision during implementation.

Can technology support and encourage constructivist practices?

Considering our second question, first recall the basic principles of constructivist teaching and learning. Let’s begin to interconnect technology to the picture as we begin thinking about effective teacher development programs. Teachers can use technology to engage students in more meaningful learning than is presently occurring in many classrooms today. Technology can assist with providing meaning to students in a social context accompanied by interaction between the learner and other people. With careful planning of professional development programs, principals can successfully fulfill their significant and powerful role in improving teaching and learning.

To assist us in creating appropriate technology staff development programs for our schools, we will visit an American Association for Curriculum Development document (ASCD, 1993) entitled, In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Of particular interest is an article written by Grennon Brooks and Martin Brooks, entitled, Becoming a Constructivist Teacher, which outlines 12 descriptors of constructivist teachers. These descriptors can serve as a framework for the design of effective technology staff development programs.

Descriptor 1

Contructivist teachers encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative. Though we contend that students should be given the freedom and choice to explore concepts and information on their own and take responsibility for their own learning, much evidence exists that this is not truly the case in many classrooms in regard to the use of technology. Too often, computer assignments consist of passive drill and practices activities with little opportunity for students to display autonomy and initiative.

Descriptor 2

Constructivist teachers use raw data and primary sources, along with manipulative, interactive, and physical materials. This descriptor focuses on the students using real-world data and other information to generate their own explanation and inferences about existing problems in our world. When teachers encourage students to wrestle with their own interpretation of existing phenomena, students must move beyond the usual practice of drill and practice, providing opportunities to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. Observing the common software used in many classrooms, one notices a lack of opportunity for students to experience multiple perspectives or critical thinking.

Descriptor 3

When framing tasks, constructivist teachers use cognitive terminology such as“classify,”“analyze,”“predict,”and“create.”Much of what transpires in today’s classrooms involves multiple choice, such as asking students to select the correct answer from a list of options. Correct answers are provided quickly and too willingly by teachers. Observing what happens in the classroom in regards to the use of technology reveals a similar practice. Students have little opportunity to predict or create their own interpretation of solutions to problems or endings to stories. Analyzing, interpreting, predicting, and synthesizing are mental activities that require students to make connections, delve deeply into texts and contexts, and create new understandings (Brooks&Brooks, 1993)

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, School personnel administration and instructional supervision. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10627/1.3
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