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Calling frequency increases with risk of predation

Many primate species use alarm calls to mitigate the threat of predation. Close range clear calls are observed in multiple primate species (Gautier&Gautier 1977; Zuberbühler et al, 1997). The clear calls could be used to avoid predation, as a form of vigilance, in which case the frequency of calls should increase with heightened risk of predation (Uster et al, 2001). Multiple predators threaten Diana monkeys as they forage throughout the day, and individuals often find themselves out of sight of other group members (Uster et al, 2001). The clear calls that males produce may function to confirm that a particular area is safe. Fitting with this idea, the monkeys produce calls most often when they are widely dispersed, when they are about to move to a new area, in areas of low visibility, and when they are foraging separately to find food (Uster et al, 2001). In other words, the Diana monkeys call more often when there is an increased risk of predation. All of this corroborates the hypothesis that Diana monkeys use clear calls as a form of mutualistic vigilance to communicate about the presence of danger, and this communication increases when the monkeys face an increased chance of predation.

Predator specific alarm calls are adaptive

Besides calling to give a reassuring “all clear” signal, primates use alarm calls to indicate danger, sometimes in very specific ways. Primate alarm systems can often consist of distinct alarm calls for different predators. These functionally referential signals should be adaptive because certain responses are beneficial in one instance but harmful in another; a species with predators that attack in different ways should develop distinct alarm calls to allow the primate to choose the beneficial strategy. Vervet monkeys (see [link] ), which face attack from both the air and the ground, have evolved three calls: a short tonal call for leopards, a series of staccato grunts for eagles, and a high pitched chutter for snakes (Evans 1997; Seyfarth et al, 1986). Vervet monkeys will run into the trees, safe from ambush, in response to a short tonal leopard call, but will hide in dense brush, closer to the ground, in response to grunts for eagles (Seyfarth et al, 1980). If Vervet monkeys could not identify different predators by different calls, they would have to simply guess which evasion strategy to use, and may end up choosing a strategy that makes them easier prey.

A vervet monkey foraging in the treetops.
A Vervet monkey forages in the treetops while listening for alarm calls from other group members.
(Picture obtained with permission from http://flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/2434572058/).

The semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial white-faced capuchin (see [link] ), which also faces predators from the ground and the air, has an aerial predator alarm and a terrestrial predator alarm (Digweed et al, 2005). The aerial alarm always results in a rapid descent from the treetops, while the terrestrial alarm has a more diverse response. It will sometimes lead to retreat into the trees, but may also lead to closer inspection or mobbing of the threat. Capuchins have more than one escape option open to them based on the predator, which makes it especially advantageous to have different alarm calls that allow the capuchin to pick the “best” strategy (Digweed et al, 2005).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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