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Calling frequency increases with risk of predation

Many primate species use alarm calls to mitigate the threat of predation. Close range clear calls are observed in multiple primate species (Gautier&Gautier 1977; Zuberbühler et al, 1997). The clear calls could be used to avoid predation, as a form of vigilance, in which case the frequency of calls should increase with heightened risk of predation (Uster et al, 2001). Multiple predators threaten Diana monkeys as they forage throughout the day, and individuals often find themselves out of sight of other group members (Uster et al, 2001). The clear calls that males produce may function to confirm that a particular area is safe. Fitting with this idea, the monkeys produce calls most often when they are widely dispersed, when they are about to move to a new area, in areas of low visibility, and when they are foraging separately to find food (Uster et al, 2001). In other words, the Diana monkeys call more often when there is an increased risk of predation. All of this corroborates the hypothesis that Diana monkeys use clear calls as a form of mutualistic vigilance to communicate about the presence of danger, and this communication increases when the monkeys face an increased chance of predation.

Predator specific alarm calls are adaptive

Besides calling to give a reassuring “all clear” signal, primates use alarm calls to indicate danger, sometimes in very specific ways. Primate alarm systems can often consist of distinct alarm calls for different predators. These functionally referential signals should be adaptive because certain responses are beneficial in one instance but harmful in another; a species with predators that attack in different ways should develop distinct alarm calls to allow the primate to choose the beneficial strategy. Vervet monkeys (see [link] ), which face attack from both the air and the ground, have evolved three calls: a short tonal call for leopards, a series of staccato grunts for eagles, and a high pitched chutter for snakes (Evans 1997; Seyfarth et al, 1986). Vervet monkeys will run into the trees, safe from ambush, in response to a short tonal leopard call, but will hide in dense brush, closer to the ground, in response to grunts for eagles (Seyfarth et al, 1980). If Vervet monkeys could not identify different predators by different calls, they would have to simply guess which evasion strategy to use, and may end up choosing a strategy that makes them easier prey.

A vervet monkey foraging in the treetops.
A Vervet monkey forages in the treetops while listening for alarm calls from other group members.
(Picture obtained with permission from http://flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/2434572058/).

The semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial white-faced capuchin (see [link] ), which also faces predators from the ground and the air, has an aerial predator alarm and a terrestrial predator alarm (Digweed et al, 2005). The aerial alarm always results in a rapid descent from the treetops, while the terrestrial alarm has a more diverse response. It will sometimes lead to retreat into the trees, but may also lead to closer inspection or mobbing of the threat. Capuchins have more than one escape option open to them based on the predator, which makes it especially advantageous to have different alarm calls that allow the capuchin to pick the “best” strategy (Digweed et al, 2005).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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