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Calling frequency increases with risk of predation

Many primate species use alarm calls to mitigate the threat of predation. Close range clear calls are observed in multiple primate species (Gautier&Gautier 1977; Zuberbühler et al, 1997). The clear calls could be used to avoid predation, as a form of vigilance, in which case the frequency of calls should increase with heightened risk of predation (Uster et al, 2001). Multiple predators threaten Diana monkeys as they forage throughout the day, and individuals often find themselves out of sight of other group members (Uster et al, 2001). The clear calls that males produce may function to confirm that a particular area is safe. Fitting with this idea, the monkeys produce calls most often when they are widely dispersed, when they are about to move to a new area, in areas of low visibility, and when they are foraging separately to find food (Uster et al, 2001). In other words, the Diana monkeys call more often when there is an increased risk of predation. All of this corroborates the hypothesis that Diana monkeys use clear calls as a form of mutualistic vigilance to communicate about the presence of danger, and this communication increases when the monkeys face an increased chance of predation.

Predator specific alarm calls are adaptive

Besides calling to give a reassuring “all clear” signal, primates use alarm calls to indicate danger, sometimes in very specific ways. Primate alarm systems can often consist of distinct alarm calls for different predators. These functionally referential signals should be adaptive because certain responses are beneficial in one instance but harmful in another; a species with predators that attack in different ways should develop distinct alarm calls to allow the primate to choose the beneficial strategy. Vervet monkeys (see [link] ), which face attack from both the air and the ground, have evolved three calls: a short tonal call for leopards, a series of staccato grunts for eagles, and a high pitched chutter for snakes (Evans 1997; Seyfarth et al, 1986). Vervet monkeys will run into the trees, safe from ambush, in response to a short tonal leopard call, but will hide in dense brush, closer to the ground, in response to grunts for eagles (Seyfarth et al, 1980). If Vervet monkeys could not identify different predators by different calls, they would have to simply guess which evasion strategy to use, and may end up choosing a strategy that makes them easier prey.

A vervet monkey foraging in the treetops.
A Vervet monkey forages in the treetops while listening for alarm calls from other group members.
(Picture obtained with permission from http://flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/2434572058/).

The semi-arboreal and semi-terrestrial white-faced capuchin (see [link] ), which also faces predators from the ground and the air, has an aerial predator alarm and a terrestrial predator alarm (Digweed et al, 2005). The aerial alarm always results in a rapid descent from the treetops, while the terrestrial alarm has a more diverse response. It will sometimes lead to retreat into the trees, but may also lead to closer inspection or mobbing of the threat. Capuchins have more than one escape option open to them based on the predator, which makes it especially advantageous to have different alarm calls that allow the capuchin to pick the “best” strategy (Digweed et al, 2005).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
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Damian
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Rafiq
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Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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absolutely yes
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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