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The sprite needs to face to the left when it is moving from right to left. This is the default state of the sprite sheet shown in Figure 1 so no flip is required.

The sprite needs to face to the right when it is moving from left to right. This requires a horizontal flip on the sprite images shown in Figure 1 .

Call the SpriteBatch.End method

The last statement in Listing 12 calls the SpriteBatch.End method to terminate the drawing process for the current iteration of the gameloop.

The visual frame rate

By default, the Update and Draw methods are each called approximately 60 times per second or approximately once every 16.67milliseconds. This can be changed by program code but it was not changed in this program.

The fast frame rate

When the program is drawing the sprite images in the top row of Figure 1 , a new sprite image is selected for drawing only once every 175 milliseconds (seethe variable named fast ). Therefore, the same sprite image is drawn during ten or eleven successive iterations of the game loop.

The slow frame rate

When the program is drawing the sprite images in the bottom row of Figure 1 , a new sprite image is selected for drawing only once every 525 milliseconds (seethe variable named slow ). Therefore, each of the sprites in the bottom row is drawn during about 33 successive iterations of the game loop.

Avoid flicker but animate more slowly

By drawing the sprite images 60 times per second, the image can be maintained on the computer screen with no visible flicker. By drawing the same imagemultiple times in succession, the overall visual frame rate can be slowed down to produce a pleasing animation effect.

The end of the program

Listing 13 shows the required call to the superclass of the Draw method, the end of the Draw method, the end of the class, and the end of the namespace.

Listing 13 . The end of the program.

//Required standard code. base.Draw(gameTime);}//end Draw method }//End class}//End namespace

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 14 . Use that code to create an XNA project. Compile and run the project. Experiment with the code, makingchanges, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do. Be sure to take the scale factorinto account as mentioned earlier .

Run my program

Click here to download a zip file containing my version of the program. Extract the folder named XNA0122Proj from the zip file and save it somewhere on your disk. Start Visual C# 2010 Express and select Open Project... from the File menu. Navigate to the project folder and select the file with the extension of .sln . This should cause the project to open and be ready to run or debug as described in the earlier module titled Getting Started .


Among other things, you learned:

  • How to create frame animation using a sprite sheet.
  • How to flip and scale sprite images when they are drawn.
  • How to implement different animation frame rates in the same program.
  • How to work with different groups of sprite images in the same program.
  • How to change the size of the game window.
  • How to create a Rectangle object.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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