# 8.1 A single population mean using the normal distribution  (Page 5/20)

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## Try it

Refer back to the pizza-delivery Try It exercise. The population standard deviation is six minutes and the sample mean deliver time is 36 minutes. Use a sample size of 20. Find a 95% confidence interval estimate for the true mean pizza delivery time.

(33.37, 38.63)

Suppose we change the original problem in [link] to see what happens to the error bound if the sample size is changed.

Leave everything the same except the sample size. Use the original 90% confidence level. What happens to the error bound and the confidence interval if we increase the sample size and use n = 100 instead of n = 36? What happens if we decrease the sample size to n = 25 instead of n = 36?

• $\overline{x}$ = 68
• EBM = $\left({z}_{\frac{\alpha }{2}}\right)\left(\frac{\sigma }{\sqrt{n}}\right)$
• σ = 3; The confidence level is 90% ( CL =0.90); ${z}_{\frac{\alpha }{2}}$ = z 0.05 = 1.645.

## Solution b

If we decrease the sample size n to 25, we increase the error bound.

When n = 25: EBM = $\left({z}_{\frac{\alpha }{2}}\right)\left(\frac{\sigma }{\sqrt{n}}\right)$ = (1.645) $\left(\frac{3}{\sqrt{25}}\right)$ = 0.987.

## Summary: effect of changing the sample size

• Increasing the sample size causes the error bound to decrease, making the confidence interval narrower.
• Decreasing the sample size causes the error bound to increase, making the confidence interval wider.

## Try it

Refer back to the pizza-delivery Try It exercise. The mean delivery time is 36 minutes and the population standard deviation is six minutes. Assume the sample size is changed to 50 restaurants with the same sample mean. Find a 90% confidence interval estimate for the population mean delivery time.

(34.6041, 37.3958)

## Working backwards to find the error bound or sample mean

When we calculate a confidence interval, we find the sample mean, calculate the error bound, and use them to calculate the confidence interval. However, sometimes when we read statistical studies, the study may state the confidence interval only. If we know the confidence interval, we can work backwards to find both the error bound and the sample mean.

## Finding the Error Bound

• From the upper value for the interval, subtract the sample mean,
• OR, from the upper value for the interval, subtract the lower value. Then divide the difference by two.

## Finding the Sample Mean

• Subtract the error bound from the upper value of the confidence interval,
• OR, average the upper and lower endpoints of the confidence interval.

Notice that there are two methods to perform each calculation. You can choose the method that is easier to use with the information you know.

Suppose we know that a confidence interval is (67.18, 68.82) and we want to find the error bound. We may know that the sample mean is 68, or perhaps our source only gave the confidence interval and did not tell us the value of the sample mean.

## Calculate the error bound:

• If we know that the sample mean is 68: EBM = 68.82 – 68 = 0.82.
• If we don't know the sample mean: EBM = $\frac{\left(68.82-67.18\right)}{2}$ = 0.82.

## Calculate the sample mean:

• If we know the error bound: $\overline{x}$ = 68.82 – 0.82 = 68
• If we don't know the error bound: $\overline{x}$ = $\frac{\left(67.18+68.82\right)}{2}$ = 68.

## Try it

Suppose we know that a confidence interval is (42.12, 47.88). Find the error bound and the sample mean.

Sample mean is 45, error bound is 2.88

## Calculating the sample size n

If researchers desire a specific margin of error, then they can use the error bound formula to calculate the required sample size.

what is standard deviation?
It is the measure of the variation of certain values from the Mean (Center) of a frequency distribution of sample values for a particular Variable.
Dominic
Yeah....the simplest one
IRFAN
what is the number of x
10
Elicia
Javed Arif
Jawed
how will you know if a group of data set is a sample or population
population is the whole set and the sample is the subset of population.
umair
if the data set is drawn out of a larger set it is a sample and if it is itself the whole complete set it can be treated as population.
Bhavika
hello everyone if I have the data set which contains measurements of each part during 10 years, may I say that it's the population or it's still a sample because it doesn't contain my measurements in the future? thanks
Alexander
Pls I hv a problem on t test is there anyone who can help?
Peggy
Dominic
Bhavika is right
Dominic
what is the problem peggy?
Bhavika
hi
Sandeep
Hello
hi
Bhavika
hii Bhavika
Dar
Hi eny population has a special definition. if that data set had all of characteristics of definition, that is population. otherwise that is a sample
Hoshyar
three coins are tossed. find the probability of no head
three coins are tossed consecutively or what ?
umair
umair
or .125 is the probability of getting no head when 3 coins are tossed
umair
🤣🤣🤣
Simone
what is two tailed test
if the diameter will be greater than 3 cm then the bullet will not fit in the barrel of the gun so you are bothered for both the sides.
umair
in this test you are worried on both the ends
umair
lets say you are designing a bullet for thw gun od diameter equals 3cm.if the diameter of the bullet is less than 3 cm then you wont be able to shoot it
umair
In order to apply weddles rule for numerical integration what is minimum number of ordinates
excuse me?
Gabriel
why?
didn't understand the question though.
Gabriel
which question? ?
We have rules of numerical integration like Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's 1/3 and 3/8 rules, Boole's rule and Weddle rule for n =1,2,3,4 and 6 but for n=5?
John
geometric mean of two numbers 4 and 16 is:
10
umair
really
iphone
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is:
iphone
sorry 8 is the geometric mean of 4,16
umair
quartile deviation of 8 8 8 is
iphone
can you please expalin the whole question ?
umair
mcq
iphone
h
iphone
can you please post the picture of that ?
umair
how
iphone
hello
John
10 now
John
how to find out the value
can you be more specific ?
umair
yes
KrishnaReddy
what is the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics
descriptive statistics gives you the result on the the data like you can calculate various things like variance,mean,median etc. however, inferential stats is involved in prediction of future trends using the previous stored data.
umair
if you need more help i am up for the help.
umair
Thanks a lot
Anjali
Inferential Statistics involves drawing conclusions on a population based on analysis of a sample. Descriptive statistics summarises or describes your current data as numerical calculations or graphs.
fred
my pleasure😊. Helping others offers me satisfaction 😊
umair
for poisson distribution mean............variance.
both are equal to mu
Faizan
mean=variance
Faizan
what is a variable
something that changes
Festus
why we only calculate 4 moment of mean? asked in papers.
why we only 4 moment of mean ? asked in BA exam
Faizan
Hello, can you please share the possible questions that are likely to be examined under the topic: regression and correlation analysis.
Refiloe
for normal distribution mean is 2 & variance is 4 find mu 4?
repeat quastion again
Yusuf
find mu 4. it can be wrong but want to prove how.
Faizan
for a normal distribution if mu 4 is 12 then find mu 3?
Question hi wrong ha
Tahir
ye BA mcqs me aya he teen he. 2dafa aya he
Faizan
if X is normally distributed. (n,b). then its mean deviation is?
Faizan
The answer is zero, because all odd ordered central moments of a normal distribution are Zero.
nikita
which question is zero
Faizan
sorry it is (5,16) in place of (n,b)
Faizan
I got. thanks. it is zero.
Faizan
a random variable having binomial distribution is?
Bokaho