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Benchmark data also ignore the fact that the student market is segmented rather than homogenous (Zemsky, Shaman,&Shapiro, 2001). This segmentation reflects a variety of institutional types and missions. Students who will be attracted to, and well served by, one type of institution will not be attracted to, or well served by, another institution. Recruiting outside the normal market segment of an institution is costly because of increased recruitment costs and lower retention rates. Furthermore, the intrusion of large institutions into markets normally the province of small institutions may have a negative impact on higher education in general (Newman et al., 2004). Without the capital to compete with larger institutions, smaller institutions may ultimately cease to exist. With them will go the unique missions they serve and the diversity which is the great strength of higher education in the United States. Thus, an important consideration in the decision to go online is whether students appropriately served under the institutional mission will benefit from the courses and programs provided.

Return on investment analysis: an alternative to benchmarking

Benchmarking alone, in our opinion, should not be the reason for offering online courses. Instead, benchmark data should trigger a serious return on investment analysis (ROI). That is, data showing that other institutions of higher education are implementing online learning are only sufficient to indicate that institutional leaders need to determine whether or not such instruction can serve their institutional mission in a cost effective fashion. Other data must be considered before this decision is made. The additional data, however, may be difficult to obtain because institutions of higher education are not accustomed to calculating costs accurately. For example, institutions typically underestimate the cost of recruiting students (Raisman, 2007). Nevertheless, such calculations need to be made because simply increasing enrollment can actually result in a loss of revenue when the costs of recruitment and instruction exceed the revenue obtain through tuition, fees, and so forth.

Calculating required cost

How much should putting a course online cost? Prior to offering online courses, the costs of putting quality courses on line needs to be calculated. The cost estimates for the ROI in the current analysis are taken from the business world. We used business calculations because higher education is under increasing pressure to provide accountability with regard to student learning (Newman et al., 2004). In the past, if we provided insufficient instruction and students failed to learn, we either failed them or adjusted grades in some way (e.g., curving, extra credit). Thus, the cost of instruction has simply been whatever we have been willing to pay. In the business world, however, if insufficient instruction is provided and students do not learn, the trainer gets fired. A world in which teachers can be fired when their students do not learn not only tends to generate better practice, but also reflects a level of accountability typically not present in higher education. That is, in higher education, poor teaching can often be covered up by failing the students, grading on a curve, giving extra credit, or similar practices that either blame the student or inflate grades. Thus, we contend that the business world is the best place to estimate what online courses should cost. In this world, instruction costs whatever it takes to do the job well, not simply what the institution is willing to pay.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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