<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Calculating correlations: parametric and nonparametric

In this set of steps, readers will calculate either a parametric or a nonparametric statistical analysis, depending on whether the data reflect a normal distribution. A parametric statistical procedure requires that its data be reflective of a normal curve whereas no such assumption is made in the use of a nonparametric procedure. Of the two types of statistical analyses, the parametric procedure is the more powerful one in ascertaining whether or not a statistically significant relationship, in this case, exists. As such, parametric procedures are preferred over nonparametric procedures. When data are not normally distributed, however, parametric analyses may provide misleading and inaccurate results. Accordingly, nonparametric analyses should be used in cases where data are not reflective of a normal curve. In this set of steps, readers are provided with information on how to make the determination of normally or nonnormally distributed data. For detailed information regarding the assumptions underlying parametric and nonparametric procedures, readers are referred to the Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook at (External Link) or to the Electronic Statistics Textbook (2011) at (External Link)

Research questions for which correlations are appropriate involve asking for relationships between or among variables. The research question, “What is the relationship between study skills and grades for high school students?” could be answered through use of a correlation.

Step one:

  • Perform ScatterPlots
  • √ Graphs
  • √ Legacy Dialogs
  • √ Scatter/Dot
  • √ The Simple Scatter icon should be highlighted

  • √ Define
  • √ Drag one of the two variables of interest to the first box (Y axis) on the right hand side and the other variable of interest to the second box (X axis) on the right hand side. It does not matter which variable goes in the X or Y axis because your scatterplot results will be the same.
  • Once you have a variable in each of the two boxes, click on the OK tab on the bottom left hand corner of the screen.

  • √ Look at the scatterplots to see whether a linear relationship is present.
  • In the screenshot below, the relationship is very clearly linear.

Step two:

  • Calculate Descriptive Statistics on Variables
  • √ Analyze
  • * Descriptive Statistics
  • * Frequencies
  • * Click on the variables for which you want descriptive statistics (your dependent variables)
  • * You may click on each variable separately or highlight several of them
  • * * Once you have a variable in the left hand cell highlighted, click on the arrow in the middle to send the variable to the empty cell titled Variable(s)

  • √ Statistics
  • * Click on as many of the options you would like to see results
  • * At the minimum, click on: M , SD , Skewness, and Kurtosis

  • * Continue
  • * Charts (these are calculated only if you wish to have visual depictions of skewness and of kurtosis-they are not required)
  • * Histograms (not required, optional) with Normal Curve

  • * Continue
  • * OK

Step three:

Check for Skewness and Kurtosis values falling within/without the parameters of normality (-3 to +3)

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask