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Butler, finegan, and siefried (1998).

The obvious first step is to find and print a copy of the article by Butler, Finegan, and Siefried. In fact, do not proceed any further in reading this module until you have read the article. We will discuss in class what the authors do in the paper and how clearly they present their conclusions. In this first pass at the article you are to pay attention to how convincing you find their arguments to be. Since everyone in the class has completed an intermediate microeconomics course, your discussion of their conclusions should reflect your own experiences. Also, you need to be able to discuss in class the estimation strategy they use in the paper. In particular, you will need to be able to identify what the source of the data is and what equations did they estimate. Also, try to determine how the estimations in the "first" stage are used in the estimations of the "second" stage. Why did the authors use a two-stage estimation strategy?

Also, what do you think the authors mean in their description of their estimation strategy by their statement about the estimation methods they use:

Estimation Methods and Expectations
To cope with the selection bias problem, we use a two-stage estimation procedure. The first stage employs an ordered probit model to predict the highest level of calculus attained by each student prior to taking each intermediate economic theory course.... In the second stage, the student's grade in MICRO-2 ... (the `outcome') is regressed on the actual level of calculus attained, the grade earned in that calculus course, the predicted residual in the grade equation that we would expect on the basis of the actual level of calculus attained, and a roster of control variables reflecting ability and motivation. Individuals are the unit of observation. Ordinary least squares estimation is used because there are twelve categories of grades which are commonly interpreted as cardinal measures of performance (as is implied by the calculation of `grade point averages'). (Butler, Finegan, and Siegfried, 1998: 188)

The ordered-probit model

In what follows you are to “replicate” the equations the authors estimate in the paper for the intermediate microeconomics course. In order to complete this assignment you will need to figure out several things including (1) what an ordered-probit model is and (2) how to use Stata to estimate an ordered-probit model. In this section of the module we introduce the ordered-probit model. I strongly encourage you to consult Greene (1990: 703-706) for an excellent and clear discussion of the ordered-probit model. The discussion here follows Greene closely.

It is common for surveys to have questions that require the responder to choose one of several categories that have an innate order to them. For instance, most course evaluations ask the respondent to choose an answer to a question that reflects their agreement with a statement about the course. For instance, the question might read, "The Professor was interested in the material taught in the class" where the student completing the evaluation would choose a number from 1 to 9 where a 1 indicates complete disagreement with the statement and a 9 reflects complete agreement with the statement. Thus, there is an order to the potential answers. Using a logit, probit, or multilogit model would completely ignore this order. A linear regression is inappropriate because OLS treats the difference between answers of 1 and 2 as being the same as the difference between a 7 and and 8, when in fact the numbers only provide a ranking.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Econometrics for honors students. OpenStax CNX. Jul 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11208/1.2
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