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Sources of corruption include multipath interference, changing channel gains, interference from other users, broadband noise, and narrowband interferences.
Sources of corruption include multipath interference, changing channel gains, interference fromother users, broadband noise, and narrowband interferences.

Broadband noise

When the signal arrives at the receiver, it is small and must be amplified. While it is possible to build high-gainamplifiers, the noises and interferences will also be amplified along with the signal. In particular, any noise in the amplifier itself will be increased. This is often called “thermal noise” and is usually modelled as white(independent) broadband noise. Thermal noise is inherent in any electronic components and is caused by smallrandom motions of electrons, like the Brownian motion of small particles suspended in water.

Such broadband noise is another reason that a bandpass filter is applied at the front end of the receiver. Byapplying a suitable filter, the total power in the noise (compared to the total power in the signal) can often be improved. [link] shows the spectrum of the signal as a pair of triangles centered at the carrier frequency ± f c with bandwidth 2 B . The total power in the signal is the area under the triangles. The spectrum of the noiseis the flat region, and its power is the shaded area. After applying the bandpass filter, the power in the signalremains (more or less) unchanged, while the power in the noise is greatly reduced. Thus, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improves.

Narrowband noise

Noises are not always white; that is, the spectrum may not always be flat. Stray sine waves (and othersignals with narrow spectra) may also impinge on the receiver. These may be caused by errant transmitters that accidentlybroadcast in the frequency range of the signal, or they may be harmonics of a lower frequency waveas it experiences nonlinear distortion. If these narrowband disturbances occur out of band, they willautomatically be attenuated by the bandpass filter just as if they were a component of the wideband noise.However, if they occur in the frequency region of the signal, they decrease the SNR in proportion to theirpower. Judicious use of a “notch” filter (one designed to remove just the offending frequency) can be an effectivetool.

[link] shows the spectrum of the signal as the pair of triangles, along with three narrowband interferersrepresented by the three pairs of spikes. After the bandpass filter, the two pairs of out-of-band spikes are removed,but the in-band pair remains.

The signal-to-noise ratio is depicted graphically as the ratio of the power of the signal (the area under the triangles) to the power in the noise (the shaded area). After the bandpass filter, the power in the noise decreases, and so the SNR increases.
The signal-to-noise ratio is depicted graphically as the ratio of the power of the signal (the area under thetriangles) to the power in the noise (the shaded area). After the bandpass filter, the power in the noise decreases,and so the SNR increases.
Three narrowband interferers are shown in the top figure (the three pairs of spikes). The BPF cannot remove the in-band interferer, though a narrow notch filter can, at the expense of changing the signal in the region where the narrow band noise occurred.
Three narrowband interferers are shown in the top figure (the three pairs of spikes). The BPF cannot remove the in-band interferer,though a narrow notch filter can, at the expense of changing the signal in the region where the narrow band noise occurred.

Applying a narrow notch filter tuned to the frequency of the interferer allows its removal,although this cannot be done without also affecting the signal somewhat.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
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Adin
why?
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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absolutely yes
Daniel
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Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
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