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Hisha I, emir from 788 to 796, reversed the doctrine of tolerance and attacked the Christians, although he promoted a religious and intellectual aristocracy. This latter group was suppressed with cruelty; however, as Hakam I took control in 796. (Ref. 196 )

France&Netherlands and belgium

It is again recommended that the sections on GERMANY and FRANCE be studied together in this and adjacent centuries since both were administered more or less together under the Franks. In 732 Charles Martel, son of administrator Pepin II, extended his father's confiscations to include all income from church lands under Frankish control in order to support a substantial force of cataphracts (armored knights) which gave him military supremacy in the entire area. It was he who stopped the Moslems at Poiters, near Tours in 732, using cavalry equipped with stirrups so that they could ram home lances and use maces and swords while remaining mounted. Without this battle, western civilization might never have existed. Following that victory Europe had to increase its numbers of horses and horsemen to continue to protect itself and "feudalism" was the result. (Ref. 260 , 279 )

The Merovingian Dynasty came to an inglorious end and the Carolingean Dynasty began with Martel's son, Pepin , who began to dominate a greater area and paved the way for his son, Charles (Charlemagne), the greatest of the medieval European kings. He allowed the pope to crown him "Emperor of the Romans" in 800 A.D. No eastern emperor had visited Rome for some 300 years. (Ref. 49 , 213 )

In the far north in the Belgium-Netherlands area, the Frisians were on top commercially, trading in wine, salt, oil, glass, textiles and metal work. In the far south of France a few Byzantine goods drifted in and in return the West sent slaves, iron and timber to the East. (Ref. 137 , 213 ) (Continue on pages 488 and 490) Additional Notes

British isles


The scholar Bede states that five languages were spoken in England at this time - English, Celtic, Irish, Pict and Latin. The early English was the language of the Angles and differed little from Saxon and was intelligible to the Franks, Norwegians and Danes, all of these being varieties of basic German. The Beowulf, a famous Anglo-Saxon poem, appeared in England in this century. Gradually the Saxons developed kings, as glorified generals, who protected themselves by giving lands to barons and in this way a land aristocracy soon developed. In the last half of the century there were ceaseless wars between some seven kingdoms, all now nominally Christian. But Bede, writing to the Bishop of York, Egbert, in A.D. 734 complained that some bishops were drunken revelers and Boniface wrote in much the same vein to the Archbishop of Canterbury, complaining of drunkenness of bishops and loose living of nuns. So Christianity was not having an easy time. (Ref. 43 )

All of this 8th century activity was followed in A.D. 793 by the first great Viking sacking of the monastic center at Lindisfarne, probably by Norwegians. Another group, probably also Norwegian, had come down the English channel in 789, landing at Portland on the Dorset coast. Danes from Jutland also started their raids. There is no doubt that all of these raiders, - Angles, Jutes and the later Danes and Normans as well as the North- men who went down through Russia, and the still earlier Goths, were all waves of one and the same type of Germanic people. (Ref. 229 ) But to return to England, in spite of all the turmoil, there was some international trade and visitations in this century. There were even Chinese in King Offa lI's Mercia court at the end of the century. Mercia, along with Northumbria and Wessex, were the largest of the English kingdoms. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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