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As at Merido in Spain, Lyons had a non-clerical hospital in this century. (Ref. 125 ) Hugh Thomas (Ref. 213 ) writes that leprosy apparently arrived in France and England in this century and that lepers were isolated, declared legally dead and of ten excluded from the church.

British isles


After the Celtic victory of Mount Baden which was described in the last chapter, there was a period of security in southern England for about two generations but then the Saxons began to advance again so that by 577 the confrontation line extended to the Bristol Channel, Bath and Gloucester. By 600 only Devon and Cornwall of southern

England were not Saxon. The law, language and economy of the Roman province had disappeared. While the Saxons were valley livers and farmed and formed villages, the remaining Britons were in the hills and highlands. Thus hill, wood and stream names are of ten Celtic in origin, while lowlands and villages have Anglo-Saxon names. The Saxon villages were in open areas and the houses were little more than wattle and daub structures with a single ridge pole, sunken floor and a total space of about 10' by 15'. They used horse-drawn ploughs, milled wheat, barley and oats and grew cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. (Ref. 29 , 43 )

The transplanted Saxons were converted to Christianity in the last of the century chiefly through the efforts of the Frankish Queen of King Ethelbert of Kent and the papal envoy, St. Augustine, originally from North Africa. North England received Christianity from north Ireland via St. Columba, who succeeded Patrick.


Britons and a few Angles migrated into Scotland at this period and shortly after 525 the Irish colonized western Scotland. Soon the word "Scot", originally an alternative to "Irish", became reserved for these northern settlers only. In Scotland, proper, al- though the deserted Antonine wall had crumbled it still formed the loose southern border of Pictland. South of it the north Britons of Strathclyde, related to the Welsh, had organized an aristocratic society with manors, towns and farms. To understand the British Isles in those early days one must consider Ireland, Scotland, Wales and certainly northern England as an inter-related group of communities and it is difficult to completely separate their histories. (Ref. 137 , 170 )

St. Columba (See IRELAND below) carried Christianity from Ireland to Iona in western Scotland in 543. This religion was separate from control of the Vatican pope and was not related or descended directly from Latin Christianity in England. For four centuries lona was the center of Celtic Christianity and some beautifully decorated Celtic manuscripts survive from that era. (Ref. 33 )


Colum Cille, later to be called St. Columba, was born in Dal Riata of the family Ul Neill and when forty-two years old, set out as a pilgrim, accompanied by twelve disciples, toward the land of the Picts. He landed on the tiny island of lona, there to establish his own type of Christian monastery. While still maintaining some ties to Ire- land, lona developed into a spiritual center for all the tribes of coastal Scotland. The Irish spirit shone with its strongest light at that time, with culture and knowledge at a high peak. Many learned men from the continent, fleeing the invading barbarians, ended up on the shores of Ireland. A boatload of 50 scholars arrived at Cork in 550, bringing with them their craftsmen and it was these wanderers who subsequently taught the technique and made princely ornaments as well as weapons. Then learned men from Ireland became missionaries back to England, Germany and Gaul. (Ref. 91 , 33 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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