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Box 1: bite recruitment in polybia wasps

Colonies of the paper wasp Polybia are much smaller than most honeybee colonies. They also have a distinctly unique method of forager recruiting completely dissimilar to the honeybee waggle dance. The paper wasp’s approach to recruiting foragers to food sources is much more aggressive. As Sean O’Donnell shows in his study, the wasp recruiters bite one another, a signal that was used by scouts to recruit other wasps to begin foraging. He found that bitten wasps have an increased likelihood to initiate foraging. In order to test his hypothesis, he removed active foragers from nest sites and found that in relation to the control sites, foraging greatly decreased throughout the following days. This, he noted caused a marked decrease in food gathering and as he had predicted a drastic increase in the rate at which non-foraging worker wasps were bitten. Those that were bitten often began a foraging role soon after. It is important to note that just as the honeybees cope with inaccuracy of waggle dances by deferring to prior knowledge on food sources, some paper wasps initiated foraging even without being bitten (O’Donnell 2006).

Olfactory communication proves to be even more advanced in honeybees and also plays an important role in the recruitment process. In addition to scents gathered from the environment, Thom et al. in their experiments proved that the returning recruiters secrete as many as four complex pheromones while engaging in the waggle dance. They showed, by injecting one such chemical into a test population, that it increased the number of recruits that left the hive after the waggle-dance. As many as four distinct chemical signals, produced only by waggle-dancers during their runs have been shown to increase the number of recruits that begin foraging (Thom et al. 2007). Von Frisch’s experiments also showed that a nectar scent carried by a forager can be traced by a dance-observer to a particular flower, thereby increasing the accuracy of the recruitment process (Von Frisch 1974).

The variability of waggle-dance communication

The effectiveness of the waggle-dance is highly variable within individual honeybee colonies. Colonies with eggs fertilized by multiple males (multiple-patriline) have been shown to increase foraging rates, larger stores of food and higher individual health compared to single-patriline colonies (Mattila et al. 2008). That is to say, queens that breed with more than one male increase the productivity of their nest. It is strange that decreased relatedness within the brood would in fact increase productivity, but the reasons are clear. What Mattila and her colleagues discovered was that in a genetically diverse population, worker efficiency was improved by the genetic variability of communicational behaviors. They showed that multiple-patriline colonies had an increase in foraging rates of 27-78% and engaged in 36% percent more waggle dances daily than genetically uniform colonies (Matilla et al. 2008). Not only does genetic diversity increase resistance to diseases in the hive, but it also allows for varying degrees of specificity in waggle dances. Decreased relatedness creates an increased need for more highly specific communication, as well as an increased variability in the waggle-dance. This increased variety of dance, according to the Tuned Error Hypothesis, may also lead to a larger search area. This is not necessarily a negative outcome. It occurs also when workers witness only a limited number of incomplete waggle runs and perhaps could allow bees, even at a short range, to find unexplored food resources next to the one being indicated by the dancer. Since the dances that indicate more remote locations are more precise and last longer, the search area at both close and far distances should theoretically be comparable (Tanner et al. 2008).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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