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Developing the capacity to teach more effectively, to present information and gather data about student learning is becoming the norm in higher education. It is essential that faculty know how and when to best apply effective strategies in the instructional program and to understand that these strategies can be used both in designing original lessons and as interventions when other strategies are less successful.

Understand the adult learner

Knowledge about the adult learner is essential. “An understanding of the principles of adult learning is part of being effective” (Lieb, 1991). The knowledge and skill students are expected to learn must be delivered within the frame of adult learning. Professors need to recognize that elements of respect and relevancy provide an environment where adults learn best (Lieb,1991). There is little chance that academic work will become a part of the lifelong experience for the adult if the “special needs and requirements” (Lieb, 1991) are not part of the teaching and learning process. According to Lieb, there are four critical elements of learning—motivation, reinforcement, retention and transference—that must be addressed to maximize adult learning. Effective instructional practice grounded in knowledge of adult learners often leads to comprehension of a few general principles with a thorough grounding in the application and process to a variety of concrete details. Such an approach helps students to remember how to apply the key principles to immediate circumstances. It is as important to acknowledge that adult learning theory and principles are very operative in higher education. Zemke&Zemke (1984) wrote that the knowledge about adult learning might be divided into three basic divisions: (1) things we know about adult learners and their motivation, (2) things we know about designing a curriculum for adults, (3) and things we know about working with adults in the classroom.

Identifying success competencies needed for professional leadership is also critical. An established a set of competencies that identifies the skills of successful leaders in an educational setting is reflected in the work of Eichinger et al. ( 2003). The Education Competency Wheel is a graphic representation of six factors that, when incorporated into the adult leadership skill set, create a greater opportunity for success in one’s professional career and for becoming an integral member of a work team. Completion of a degree in educational leadership from an accredited university will prepare the student in competencies anchored in the six factors of courage, results, operating skills, strategic skills, individual excellence, and organizational skills.

Blended learning

Blended Learning is another format that can be used to strengthen instructional effectiveness. The Virtual Professor (Dec, 2004) reports that faculty have experienced positive effects in their classroom instruction when using online teaching strategies. Faculty use technology in numerous ways: Power Point presentations, course web pages, web-based courses and integrating the use of computers into the classroom. The Foundation Coalition, one of eight engineering coalitions funded by the National Science Foundation—an organization committed to improving curricular and instructional effectiveness in higher education—suggests placing the technologies in the hands of students on a routine basis to facilitate learning, change learning outcomes, and reshape the learning process (NSF Coalition, 1993). Reshaping the learning process utilizing non-traditional applications for learning requires large investments of time for developing online learning versions of courses. It requires re-conceptualization of the content and learning objectives.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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