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Developing the capacity to teach more effectively, to present information and gather data about student learning is becoming the norm in higher education. It is essential that faculty know how and when to best apply effective strategies in the instructional program and to understand that these strategies can be used both in designing original lessons and as interventions when other strategies are less successful.

Understand the adult learner

Knowledge about the adult learner is essential. “An understanding of the principles of adult learning is part of being effective” (Lieb, 1991). The knowledge and skill students are expected to learn must be delivered within the frame of adult learning. Professors need to recognize that elements of respect and relevancy provide an environment where adults learn best (Lieb,1991). There is little chance that academic work will become a part of the lifelong experience for the adult if the “special needs and requirements” (Lieb, 1991) are not part of the teaching and learning process. According to Lieb, there are four critical elements of learning—motivation, reinforcement, retention and transference—that must be addressed to maximize adult learning. Effective instructional practice grounded in knowledge of adult learners often leads to comprehension of a few general principles with a thorough grounding in the application and process to a variety of concrete details. Such an approach helps students to remember how to apply the key principles to immediate circumstances. It is as important to acknowledge that adult learning theory and principles are very operative in higher education. Zemke&Zemke (1984) wrote that the knowledge about adult learning might be divided into three basic divisions: (1) things we know about adult learners and their motivation, (2) things we know about designing a curriculum for adults, (3) and things we know about working with adults in the classroom.

Identifying success competencies needed for professional leadership is also critical. An established a set of competencies that identifies the skills of successful leaders in an educational setting is reflected in the work of Eichinger et al. ( 2003). The Education Competency Wheel is a graphic representation of six factors that, when incorporated into the adult leadership skill set, create a greater opportunity for success in one’s professional career and for becoming an integral member of a work team. Completion of a degree in educational leadership from an accredited university will prepare the student in competencies anchored in the six factors of courage, results, operating skills, strategic skills, individual excellence, and organizational skills.

Blended learning

Blended Learning is another format that can be used to strengthen instructional effectiveness. The Virtual Professor (Dec, 2004) reports that faculty have experienced positive effects in their classroom instruction when using online teaching strategies. Faculty use technology in numerous ways: Power Point presentations, course web pages, web-based courses and integrating the use of computers into the classroom. The Foundation Coalition, one of eight engineering coalitions funded by the National Science Foundation—an organization committed to improving curricular and instructional effectiveness in higher education—suggests placing the technologies in the hands of students on a routine basis to facilitate learning, change learning outcomes, and reshape the learning process (NSF Coalition, 1993). Reshaping the learning process utilizing non-traditional applications for learning requires large investments of time for developing online learning versions of courses. It requires re-conceptualization of the content and learning objectives.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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