<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Fetal “breathing”

Although the function of fetal breathing movements is not entirely clear, they can be observed starting at 20–21 weeks of development. Fetal breathing movements involve muscle contractions that cause the inhalation of amniotic fluid and exhalation of the same fluid, with pulmonary surfactant and mucus. Fetal breathing movements are not continuous and may include periods of frequent movements and periods of no movements. Maternal factors can influence the frequency of breathing movements. For example, high blood glucose levels, called hyperglycemia, can boost the number of breathing movements. Conversely, low blood glucose levels, called hypoglycemia, can reduce the number of fetal breathing movements. Tobacco use is also known to lower fetal breathing rates. Fetal breathing may help tone the muscles in preparation for breathing movements once the fetus is born. It may also help the alveoli to form and mature. Fetal breathing movements are considered a sign of robust health.

Birth

Prior to birth, the lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, mucus, and surfactant. As the fetus is squeezed through the birth canal, the fetal thoracic cavity is compressed, expelling much of this fluid. Some fluid remains, however, but is rapidly absorbed by the body shortly after birth. The first inhalation occurs within 10 seconds after birth and not only serves as the first inspiration, but also acts to inflate the lungs. Pulmonary surfactant is critical for inflation to occur, as it reduces the surface tension of the alveoli. Preterm birth around 26 weeks frequently results in severe respiratory distress, although with current medical advancements, some babies may survive. Prior to 26 weeks, sufficient pulmonary surfactant is not produced, and the surfaces for gas exchange have not formed adequately; therefore, survival is low.

Disorders of the…

Respiratory system: respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) primarily occurs in infants born prematurely. Up to 50 percent of infants born between 26 and 28 weeks and fewer than 30 percent of infants born between 30 and 31 weeks develop RDS. RDS results from insufficient production of pulmonary surfactant, thereby preventing the lungs from properly inflating at birth. A small amount of pulmonary surfactant is produced beginning at around 20 weeks; however, this is not sufficient for inflation of the lungs. As a result, dyspnea occurs and gas exchange cannot be performed properly. Blood oxygen levels are low, whereas blood carbon dioxide levels and pH are high.

The primary cause of RDS is premature birth, which may be due to a variety of known or unknown causes. Other risk factors include gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, second-born twins, and family history of RDS. The presence of RDS can lead to other serious disorders, such as septicemia (infection of the blood) or pulmonary hemorrhage. Therefore, it is important that RDS is immediately recognized and treated to prevent death and reduce the risk of developing other disorders.

Medical advances have resulted in an improved ability to treat RDS and support the infant until proper lung development can occur. At the time of delivery, treatment may include resuscitation and intubation if the infant does not breathe on his or her own. These infants would need to be placed on a ventilator to mechanically assist with the breathing process. If spontaneous breathing occurs, application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be required. In addition, pulmonary surfactant is typically administered. Death due to RDS has been reduced by 50 percent due to the introduction of pulmonary surfactant therapy. Other therapies may include corticosteroids, supplemental oxygen, and assisted ventilation. Supportive therapies, such as temperature regulation, nutritional support, and antibiotics, may be administered to the premature infant as well.

Chapter review

The development of the respiratory system in the fetus begins at about 4 weeks and continues into childhood. Ectodermal tissue in the anterior portion of the head region invaginates posteriorly, forming olfactory pits, which ultimately fuse with endodermal tissue of the early pharynx. At about this same time, an protrusion of endodermal tissue extends anteriorly from the foregut, producing a lung bud, which continues to elongate until it forms the laryngotracheal bud. The proximal portion of this structure will mature into the trachea, whereas the bulbous end will branch to form two bronchial buds. These buds then branch repeatedly, so that at about week 16, all major airway structures are present. Development progresses after week 16 as respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts form, and extensive vascularization occurs. Alveolar type I cells also begin to take shape. Type II pulmonary cells develop and begin to produce small amounts of surfactant. As the fetus grows, the respiratory system continues to expand as more alveoli develop and more surfactant is produced. Beginning at about week 36 and lasting into childhood, alveolar precursors mature to become fully functional alveoli. At birth, compression of the thoracic cavity forces much of the fluid in the lungs to be expelled. The first inhalation inflates the lungs. Fetal breathing movements begin around week 20 or 21, and occur when contractions of the respiratory muscles cause the fetus to inhale and exhale amniotic fluid. These movements continue until birth and may help to tone the muscles in preparation for breathing after birth and are a sign of good health.

Questions & Answers

what structure holds the vertebral column in place?
Holly Reply
the ligarmentum flavium
Kumsah
round cushion pads that sit on the between the vertebrae. The intervertebral disc is made up of strong tissue
Kumih
Alimentary canal tissue type
Noob Reply
it consists the oesophagus ,stomach small intestine, large intestine
Kumih
alimentary canal is a type of tissue that consists of mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, rectum, and anus
snr
what is epithelial tissue
snr Reply
epithelial tissue is a line in the outer surface of an organism and blood vessels through out the body and inner surface cavities
Kumih
What is anatomy
Arko Reply
Structures of anatomy
Arko
anatomy is the study of science that deals with how the parts of a body is being structured
snr
anatomy is the study of organisms and the relationship of it's parts
Kumih
tree diagram of the composition of the blood
Poonam Reply
please you said our external hair is dead n non sensational so we the ladies apply cream to it, does it have a negative effect or not?
Abigail Reply
stupiddihedd
Chisom
epithelial tissue connective tissue muscle tissue nervous tissue
Eliham Reply
....
Ruth
Is this a question.. or a statement!!?
Mel
Jesus love us!
Daniel
thank you I needed that!!! praise the lord
Melissa
praise God!
Sherin
lol. it was joke. i am atheist xd
Daniel
so what?
Sherin
Jesus is the only living God.
Sherin
one who find refuge in him will rest with him.
Sherin
isnt this a page to ask for anatomy questions.. not bible study
Mel
Share Jesus without fear all around the world
Sherin
and anywhere you want.
Sherin
ok bible thumper. my ex a preachers daughter was a closet lesbian who f***ed me more times at church then we did hymns
Mel
y'all are the worst hypocrites in the entire world
Mel
that's what you say... but we are living for the our King Jesus not for the world.
Sherin
your king will not save you
Mel
lady you need common sense not jesus
Mel
he's saves me everyday and I do have many testimonies
Sherin
as long as you repent on sundays. y'all are free to sin the rest of the week. but are biggots towards gays and those with a different mindset.
Mel
don't look at anyone else. please clean yourself first
Sherin
lady you are probably a troll
Mel
if you live according to the commandments in Bible, you get saved by Jesus as well
Sherin
I'm not a troll
Sherin
testimonies your kind will say y'all die in his name but dont know his words...
Mel
I'm sharing his word
Sherin
how... amen thats really shows people god exists
Mel
every word in the Bible is in tip of our tongue
Sherin
we live and die for him
Sherin
i think the same. i am atheist because all religions were made for money and authority. they telling us fake stories and scary us.
Daniel
you may have read the bible and may go to church but didnt deny being a biggot
Mel
Jesus do exist and I have experienced it mam
Sherin
not everyone is for money, Daniel
Sherin
again she wont deny shes a biggot
Mel
there are people who are fake in Christianity. I'm not saying there isn't. but there are people who just live for him because they experienced Jesus more in their lives. I will pray for y'all for him to touch you.
Sherin
let him speak to you in Jesus name!
Sherin
but mostly yes. they could do good things too but working in nonreligious organisations. i dont said everyone is bad.
Daniel
I'm not getting any money for telling this you.
Sherin
lady i have gone to church read the bible. and Quran both have truths but you as a whole as in the church are the worst Hippocrits
Mel
find churches that are small in congregation
Sherin
even if they had good intentions they spread bad theories, for example: creationism.
Daniel
all they do is pray
Mel
but wont do anything else
Mel
id love to meet you to see who im talking to from behind a screen who says Ill pray for someone who NEVER ASKED.
Mel
Quran does have truth because they copied it from the Bible. when was Bible written. Things which are happening now are from Bible. Think...when was Bible written? and things happening now from it... so are you saying there's no truth in it?
Sherin
think? they are not the same
Mel
in Quran, it says they have to make other people Muslim or else they have to kill people for their God. is that correct?
Sherin
there are less biggots again you dont deny that. and such nicer people with open arms
Mel
so you haven't read the Bible clearly.
Sherin
read the New Testament and you will figure it out.
Sherin
youll turn away a gay man and welcome a rapist
Mel
while Buddhists and islamics welcome the gays and turn away the phedos
Mel
so you are basically saying that people who worship Jesus are fake people right?
Sherin
i bet you never read the quran ever
Mel
Christianity welcomes everyone, but Church have been taught people come in.
Sherin
omg.... youll try to save rapist before allowing your own blood (child) to live in your homes who comes out gay. or not wanna be a Republican. or a gun holder
Mel
I haven't read it. But in its all hates
Sherin
but they have to change from it.
Sherin
ever person i met who is like you. has a conceal carry. owns a gun. goes to church is republican and doesnt like any races besides there own....
Mel
obviously after knowing his name, they clearly will get away from all the bad thinga
Sherin
my point you believe the bible but wont educate yourself on other beliefs...
Mel
who said that?
Sherin
now tell me if the other assumptions are wrong
Mel
which church or person said that to you?
Sherin
well you wont deny it? so it has to be true.....
Mel
no church saud it. i came from a mostly white town with plenty of racists gun wearing biggots
Mel
they are completely wrong. You think Allah said anywhere in the Quran that "he's coming back soon
Sherin
What's Gun used for? It's for yours or my protection from others right.
Sherin
it's not like you have to kill innocent people.
Sherin
if you or me kill innocent people what will happen?
Sherin
you or me will go to hell only.
Sherin
if someone try to come and fight with you or me. we will take the gun for our protection.
Sherin
allah is always creating and coming back by new life....
Mel
you as a person has no right to say about the quran till you have read it...
Mel
most of the American people have Gun with them. they go to church, they call God, they worship, they do fellowship etc.. for Jesus
Sherin
but again you dont deny your not a racist biggot
Mel
or welcome gays .....
Mel
religion doesn't mean racist.
Sherin
or dont protect rapist... or were you abused and liked it
Mel
I like everyone.
Sherin
rapist shouldn't be doing that. According to Bible it's sin
Sherin
guns shouldnt be owned by those who are not right mentally or ment for harm. but again police use deadly force everyday
Mel
Why does Christian doesn't fight back when they struggle with others?
Sherin
according to the bible we shouldnt wear mixed fabrics....
Mel
But why does Muslims does it?
Sherin
we shouldnt lay with man
Mel
According to Bible gays are sin as well
Sherin
man shouldnt lay with man excuse me
Mel
actually.. they dont
Mel
if you are married, it's okay to lay with a man. because in the Bible it says after marriage, they are one. not 2 anymore
Sherin
but you wouldnt know that since you never studied or educated yourself
Mel
you watch news?
Sherin
How many news I know about hate from Muslims towards Christianity.
Sherin
again your kind would rather protect a rapist who prays than your own kids who hide in the closet as a gay man or woman
Mel
Gun shots around the world done by Muslims towards Christianity in Churches.
Sherin
oh good lord....here we go i watch more news channels than i bet have in a year
Mel
heaven and hell doesnt exist. when we die we end our existence. TOTALY. there is nothing after death. we have only 1 life so dont waste time to pray something whad dont exist, and do some good for other people. we are here and now. everything on the world depends what we do. any god dont do anything
Daniel
and dont get me going on politics or trump lady
Mel
so you know. in America itself, in an year bow many Gun shot happens because of religious hates.
Sherin
who said I'm a trump supporter.
Sherin
I don't support any politics. I only live for Christ.
Sherin
How do you differentiate Haversian canal and Volkmann canal?
Holly Reply
These are differentiated based on location. Haversian canal are present right in the middle of the osteon. the Volkmann canals are located to the sides of Haversian canal and their blood vessels and nerve fibers invade deep into spongy bone in long bones.
Carmelo
thank you
Holly
What are coronal arteries?
julie
The coronary arteries/veins are the group of arteries and veins that supplies the myocardium of the heart.
Carmelo
What is augment
Safia Reply
I don't know
Taufik
Google works wonders at answering questions..
Mel
how to identify tissues cells under a microscope
Carla Reply
any advice on how to identify tissue cells under a microscope?
Carla
structural and function of the living part
Parthiban
What is homeostasis
Haji Reply
ability of living organisms to adjust it internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium
famuyiwa
how to identify tissues cells under a microscope
Carla
what is the anatomy
aamina Reply
anatomy is the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans animals and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
Misikir
what are silhouettes
Magret Reply
is dis Medical term?
Preity
yes
Magret
but I don't know what it means
Magret
silhouette outline of a figure. The sharpness of the silhouette is a function of the shape, size and density of the object. This is most marked in radiography. basketball-shaped silhouette the enlarged cardiac outline seen in the dorsal-ventral view of the thorax in a dog with chronic pericardial
Callisto
Homeostasis
Haji
it's the first stage of wound healing that involves vasoconstriction platelet plug formation and blood clotting
famuyiwa
Levels of complexity
julie
sorry that was fast hemostasis
famuyiwa
Kkkk
julie
Anti there is homeostasis and haemostasis
julie
yes , homeostasis is the abiltity of a living organism to adjust it environment to maintain a stable equilibrium
famuyiwa
Thank you Alice, how about Haemostasis?
Christina
hemostasis is the process of regeneration of brown blood vessels to prevent bleeding from occurring. Hemostasis includes vasoconstriction by the tunica media, plalet plug formation to prevent escaping of blood out of the vessel, and blood clotting which Involves the deposit of fibrin into the plug.
Carmelo
broken blood vessels*
Carmelo
is it true, suppose if a person does something wrong like having bad habitat. Is there any connection to the kids that person going to give birth to?
Sherin
That is a very interesting question! Their has been positive correlations in data about specific behaviors occuring between parents and children. For example, alcohol addiction has been shown to be a possible trait of behavior to be passed down to generations by evaluating genes.
Carmelo
Another example is that certain individuals are more prone to mental disorders like severe depression than others based on genetics. However, also keep in mind that the environment in which you are surrounded daily plays a part in developing specific behaviors.
Carmelo
why are postsynaptic ganglionic neurons unmyelinated
Callie Reply
Postganglionic motor neurons are unmyelinated because the lack myelin sheath. The myelin sheath on the peripheral nervous system is composed of Schwann cells wrapped around the axon inside the endoneurium.
Carmelo
they lack*
Carmelo
Postganglionic (and preganglionic) motor neurons belong to the division of the autonomic nervous system. In contrast, the somatic nervous system contains only one long thick myelinated somatic presynaptic motor neuron.
Carmelo
anatomy defination in urdu
Atif Reply

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask