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Air / gases

  • The movement of air is called wind.
  • Wind affects many things in the ecosystem ie speeds up evaporation, assist in pollination of plants and the dispersal of their seeds.
  • Air is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 4% Carbon dioxide and water vapour.
    • Oxygen – used in cellular respiration and combustion and is returned to the environment by the process of photosynthesis.
    • Carbon dioxide – is a product of cellular respiration and decayed organic matter. It is removed from the atmosphere by plants during the process ofphotosynthesis.
    • Nitrogen – is needed by all living organisms for the synthesis of proteins.
    • Water vapour - the amount of water vapour found in the air remains constant on average, however, it can vary greatly from one place to another. Some parts ofthe Earth are prone to high humidity levels, why other locations have very dry air. Much of what we consider weather is caused by water vapour. The clouds inthe sky are largely made up of it, and it is the condensation of this vapour into droplets that creates rain and snow.

Edaphic factors:

Soil structure

  • Humus content is the decomposed remains of dead organic matter. It gives
  • the topsoil its dark colour. It supplies plants with nutrients and helps the soil
  • absorb (retain) water. Soils rich in humus are fertile soils.
  • Texture of soil is determined by the size of the soil particles.

Soil properties

  • How acid or alkaline a soil is, can be measured by the pH scale .
  • pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Neutral solutions have a pH value of 7 . Acid solutions have a pH value of less than 7 and alkaline solutions greater than 7 .
  • Litmus paper or universal indicator can be used to determine whether a solution is acid or alkaline.

Physiographic factors:

Aspect

  • Refers to the position of an area in relation to the sun or wind or wave action.
  • It is the direction that the slope faces ie North, South, East, West .
  • In Southern Hemisphere -
    • North facing habitats receive:
      • more solar radiation than a South facing one.
      • are warmer and drier
      • greater variety of animals
    • South facing habitats are:
      • cooler
      • have a higher water capacity
      • plant growth is luxurious

Slope

  • Also referred to as the gradient which represents the steepness of a slope.
  • Affects the rate of water run-off
    • Ie Steep slope – encourages fast run-off of water and causes soil erosion. Soils tend to be shallow and infertile and plant growth is reduced. Plants are small and few animals present
  • Gentle slope – favours slower flow of surface water, reduces erosion, and increases availability of water to plants.

Altitude

  • Is the height of the land above sea level.
  • At high altitudes :
    • the temperature is lower ,
    • the wind speed is greater,
    • and the rainfall less and more likely to get snow.
    • Less plant and animal species found
    • Plants more stunted than at lower elevations.

Biotic components

Living organisms in an ecosystem are usually grouped according to how they obtain food.

  • Autotrophs that make their own food are known as producers, while
  • Heterotrophs that eat other organisms, living or dead, are known as consumers.
  • The producers include land and aquatic plants, algae and microscopic phytoplankton in the ocean.
  • They all make their own food by using chemicals and energy sources from their environment.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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