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Oceans

In order to understand the role the oceans may play in global climate change requires an understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation changes. Global ocean circulation is controlled by thermohaline circulation . It is driven by differences in the density of seawater, which is determined by the temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) of the seawater. In the Atlantic, thermohaline circulation transports warm and very saline water to the North. There, the water cools and sinks into the deep ocean. This newly formed deep water subsequently moves southward. Dense water also sinks near Antarctica. The cold, dense waters from the North Atlantic and Antarctica gradually warm and return to the surface, throughout the world's oceans. The entire system moves like a giant conveyor belt. The movement is very slow (roughly 0.1 meters-per-second), but the flow is equivalent to that of 100 Amazon rivers.

This circulation system provides western Europe with comparatively warm sea surface temperatures along the coast and contributes to its mild winters. Ocean circulation models show that the thermohaline circulation is coupled to the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, and thus to the greenhouse effect. Increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can lead to a slowing or a complete breakdown of the circulation system. One might expect temperatures over western Europe to decrease in such a scenario. However, any such change would be superimposed on warming from the enhanced greenhouse effect. Therefore, there may be little change in temperature over western Europe, and any cooling could be restricted to the ocean area away from land. The potential effects of such circulation changes on marine ecosystems are largely unknown, but would probably be significant. Furthermore, if circulation in the oceans is reduced, their ability to absorb carbon dioxide will also be reduced. This would make the effect of human-produced carbon dioxide emissions even more pronounced.

Biota

Biodiversity is an important part of any ecosystem. The earth's biodiversity is significantly affected by human activities. These activities often lead to biodiversity loss. This loss can result from a number of factors including: habitat destruction, introduction of exotics, and over-harvesting. Of these, habitat destruction is probably the most important. Humans destroy habitats for many reasons: agricultural expansion, urban expansion, road construction and reservoir construction. Larger regions than those directly destroyed are generally affected because of the resulting habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation results in large populations being broken into smaller populations, which may be isolated from one another and may not be large enough to survive.

For example, the Aswan High Dam of Egypt was constructed because the desire to increase the supply of water for irrigation and power was considered paramount. The environmental side effects, however, have been enormous and include the spread of the disease schistosomiasis by snails that live in the irrigation channels; loss of land in the delta of the Nile River from erosion once the former sediment load of the river was no longer available for land building; and a variety of other consequences. The advisability agencies concerned with international development to seek the best environmental advice is now generally accepted, but implementation of this understanding has been slow.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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