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In order to understand the role the oceans may play in global climate change requires an understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation changes. Global ocean circulation is controlled by thermohaline circulation . It is driven by differences in the density of seawater, which is determined by the temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) of the seawater. In the Atlantic, thermohaline circulation transports warm and very saline water to the North. There, the water cools and sinks into the deep ocean. This newly formed deep water subsequently moves southward. Dense water also sinks near Antarctica. The cold, dense waters from the North Atlantic and Antarctica gradually warm and return to the surface, throughout the world's oceans. The entire system moves like a giant conveyor belt. The movement is very slow (roughly 0.1 meters-per-second), but the flow is equivalent to that of 100 Amazon rivers.

This circulation system provides western Europe with comparatively warm sea surface temperatures along the coast and contributes to its mild winters. Ocean circulation models show that the thermohaline circulation is coupled to the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, and thus to the greenhouse effect. Increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can lead to a slowing or a complete breakdown of the circulation system. One might expect temperatures over western Europe to decrease in such a scenario. However, any such change would be superimposed on warming from the enhanced greenhouse effect. Therefore, there may be little change in temperature over western Europe, and any cooling could be restricted to the ocean area away from land. The potential effects of such circulation changes on marine ecosystems are largely unknown, but would probably be significant. Furthermore, if circulation in the oceans is reduced, their ability to absorb carbon dioxide will also be reduced. This would make the effect of human-produced carbon dioxide emissions even more pronounced.


Biodiversity is an important part of any ecosystem. The earth's biodiversity is significantly affected by human activities. These activities often lead to biodiversity loss. This loss can result from a number of factors including: habitat destruction, introduction of exotics, and over-harvesting. Of these, habitat destruction is probably the most important. Humans destroy habitats for many reasons: agricultural expansion, urban expansion, road construction and reservoir construction. Larger regions than those directly destroyed are generally affected because of the resulting habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation results in large populations being broken into smaller populations, which may be isolated from one another and may not be large enough to survive.

For example, the Aswan High Dam of Egypt was constructed because the desire to increase the supply of water for irrigation and power was considered paramount. The environmental side effects, however, have been enormous and include the spread of the disease schistosomiasis by snails that live in the irrigation channels; loss of land in the delta of the Nile River from erosion once the former sediment load of the river was no longer available for land building; and a variety of other consequences. The advisability agencies concerned with international development to seek the best environmental advice is now generally accepted, but implementation of this understanding has been slow.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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