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We have chosen a variety of features from literature review to explore. [1] These can be divided into two categories, binary and grayscale, which refer to the types of images that the code operates on. The binary features are based on morphological properties including cell and nucleus area and perimeter. The grayscale features describe the texture and contrast of the cells. We implemented a total of 12 features, 5 binary and 7 grayscale. All the features below were calculated for both the cell and the nucleus, except for the ratio of nucleus area to cell area.

We used 150 test images in order to extract features for our matrices. Again, our images were 250 x 250 pixels which we believed to be large enough to minimize errors from segmentation.

Binary features

Ratio of nucleus to cell area

The ratio of nucleus to cell areas can be calculated easily using a set of binary nucleus and cell images.

We calculate area by summing all of the white pixels in an image into a scalar number, and compute the ratio by dividing these numbers.

Ratio of area to perimeter

The ratio of area to perimeter is calculated for both the cell and the nucleus. Perimeter can be calculated using the MATLAB image processing function regionprops 'Perimeter', which sums continuous adjacent pixels of objects in an image.


Circularity is calculated as a function of area and perimeter (ref paper, insert eq + variables). We calculated circularity for both the nucleus and cell. The closer the value is to 1, the more circular an object is.

Circularity formula.


Compactness is calculated for both the cell and the nucleus. It is another measure of how circular an object is. Compactness is defined as the square root of area of the nucleus divided by the area of a circle with the same perimeter.

Compactness Equation

Grayscale features

The grayscale features are based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), which can be used to extract statistical measures of texture. The GLCM is a matrix with elements p(i,j) that are equal to the number of times in the image a pixel with grayscale intensity i appears adjacent to a pixel with grayscale intensity level j. [3]


Contrast measures the difference in grayscale intensity between adjacent pixels over the entire image. The greater the difference in intensity values, the higher the value of contrast.

Contrast equation.


Homogeneity measures the distances of GLCM elements from the GLCM diagonal. Homogeneity ranges from 0 to 1. If adjacent pixels always have very similar values of grayscale intensity, the homogeneity will be close to 1.

Homogeneity equation.


Entropy is a measure of the randomness of grayscale intensity values of pixels. Entropy is based off the grayscale histogram of the image. The histogram can be created from the GLCM by summing across the rows to find the total number of pixels p(i) for each grayscale intensity value i. [4]

Entropy equation.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Automatic white blood cell classification using svm and neural networks. OpenStax CNX. Dec 16, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11924/1.5
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