<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
TEM images of SWNT and DWCNTs. Parallel dark lines corresponds to (002) lattice image of graphite. (a) and (b) SWNTs have 1 layer graphene sheet, diameter 3.2 nm. (c) DWCNT, diameter 4.0 nm.

Graphene is a planar fullerene sheet. Until recently, Raman, AFM and optical microscopy (graphene on 300 nm SiO 2 wafer) were the most convenient methods to characterize samples. However, in order to confirm graphene’s atomic structure and determine the difference between mono-layer and bi-layer, TEM is still a good option. In [link] , a monolayer suspended graphene is observed with its atomic structure clearly shown. Inset is the FFT of the TEM image, which can be used as a filter to get an optimized structure image. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) image usually gives better contrast for different particles on it. It is also sensitive with changes of thickness, which allows a determination of the number of graphene layers.

HRTEM of monolayer graphene. (a) Bright filed. (b) High Angle Annular Dark Field. Courtesy of Dr M. H. Gass, adapted from M. H. Gass, U. Bangert, A. L. Bleloch, P. Wang, R. R. Nair, and A. K. Geim, Nature Nanotechnol. , 2008, 3 , 676.

Graphene stacking and edges direction

Like the situation in CNT, TEM image is a projected image. Therefore, even with exact count of edge lines, it is not possible to conclude that a sample is a single layer graphene or multi-layer. If folding graphene has AA stacking (one layer is superposed on the other), with a projected direction of [001], one image could not tell the thickness of graphene. In order to distinguish such a bilayer of graphene from a single layer of graphene, a series of tilting experiment must be done. Different stacking structures of graphene are shown in [link] a.

Theoretically, graphene has the potential for interesting edge effects. Based upon its sp 2 structure, its edge can be either that of a zigzag or armchair configuration. Each of these possess different electronic properties similar to that observed for CNTs. For both research and potential application, it is important to control the growth or cutting of graphene with one specific edge. But before testing its electronic properties, all the edges have to be identified, either by directly imaging with STM or by TEM. Detailed information of graphene edges can be obtained with HRTEM, simulated with fast fourier transform (FFT). In [link] b, armchair directions are marked with red arrow respectively. A clear model in [link] c shows a 30 degree angle between zigzag edge and armchair edge.

(a) Graphene stacking structure; (b) HRTEM image of graphene edges: zigzag and armchain (inset is FFT); (c) graphene edge model, a 30° angle between zigzag and armchair direction.

Bibliography

  • K. Urita, Y. Sato, K. Suenaga, A. Gloter, A. Hasimoto, M. Ishida, T. Shimada, T. Shinohara, and S. Iijima, Nano Lett. , 2004, 4 , 2451.
  • H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, Nature , 1985, 318 , 162.
  • S. Iijima, Nature , 1991, 354 , 56.
  • M. H. Gass, U. Bangert, A. L. Bleloch, P. Wang, R. R. Nair, and A. K. Geim, Nature Nanotechnol. , 2008, 3 , 676.
  • L. Zheng and S. Iijima, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 2009, 102 , 015501.
  • J. Campos-Delgado, J. M. Romo-Herrera, X. Jia, D. A. Cullen, H. Muramatsu, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, Z. Ren, D. J. Smith, Y. Okuno, T. Ohba, H. Kanoh, K. Kaneko, M. Endo, H. Terrones, M. S. Dresselhaus, and M. Terrones, Nano Lett. , 2008, 8 , 2773.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell

Get the best Nanomaterials and nano... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Nanomaterials and nanotechnology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask