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The current method for piezocomposite production is the dice-and-fill technique, which consists in cutting two sets of grooves in a block of piezoceramic at right angles each other, then a polymer is cast into these grooves and the solid ceramic base is ground off. Polishing and poling are the following steps in order to achieve the final thickness and properties. This method is expensive, time consuming and size limited.

As an alternative for the dice-and-fill technique, continuos green fibers obtained by the modified viscous-suspension-spinning process, can be bundled into a cottonball-like shape, then burned and sintered. The sintered bundle impregnated with epoxy resin can be sliced into discs and then polarized. Recent results have yielded 1-3 type composites with excellent piezoelectric properties.

On the other hand, an innovative process has been developed for Sr 2 (Nb 0.5 Ta 0.5 ) 2 O 7 /PVDF composites, in this new fabrication method, appropriate amounts of oxides are mixed, pressed and sintered. The porous resulting material is subsequently infiltrated with PVDF solution and then poled. This new method for composites preparation is simple and offers a lead-free alternative smart material.

Another kind of piezocomposites can be achieved by spinning films of piezoceramic onto metal alloys, such as TiNi. The resulting materials is a hybrid composite that can utilize the different active and adaptive properties of the individual bulk materials. Due to the shape memory nature of TiNi, a possible application for this new heterostructures could be smart active damping of mechanical vibrations. DC sputtering and spin coating are the techniques necessary for the smart thin film TiNi/piezoelectric heterostructures fabrication. However, eventhough the films had a fine grain structure and high mechanical qualities, the ferroelectric properties were poor compared to literature values.

In the future, the properties of piezocomposites will be tailored, by varying the ceramic, the polymer and their relative proportions. Adjustments in the material properties will lead to fulfillment of the requirements for a particular device. [link] shows a comparison among piezoelectric ceramics, polymers and composites parameters where Z is the impedance, ε t 33 is the dielectrical constant, and ρ is the density.

Parameter ranges for piezoelectric ceramics, polymers and composites.
Material parameter Piezoceramics Piezopolymers Piezocomposites
k t (%) 45 - 55 20 - 30 60 - 75
Z (10 6 Rayls) 20 - 30 1.5 - 4 4 - 20
ε t 33 0 200 - 5000 ~10 50 - 2500
tan γ (%) <1 1.5 - 5 <1
Q m 10 - 1000 5 - 10 2 - 50
ρ (10 3 kg/m 3 ) 5.5 - 8 1 - 2 2 - 5

Piezoelectric coatings.

Many potential applications exist which require film thickness of 1 to 30 μm. Some examples of these macroscopic devices include ultrasonic high frequency transducers, fiber optic modulators and for self controlled vibrational damping systems.

ZnO and PZT have been used for piezoelectric fiber optic phase modulators fabrication. The piezoelectric materials have been sputter deposited using dc magnetron source and multimagnetron sputtering systems. Coatings of 6 µm thick of ZnO and 0.5 µm of PZT are possible to achieve using these systems. However, thickness variation of approximately 15% occurs between the center and the end of ZnO coatings, results on affected modulation performance. Although PZT coatings achieved by sputtering posses uniformity and do not exhibit cracking, the PZT is only partially crystallized and it is actually a composite structure consisting of crystalline and amorphous material, diminishing the piezoelectric properties.

Sol-gel technique for thick PZT films have been developed. It is now possible to fabricate PZT sol-gel films of up to 60 µm. The electrical and piezoelectrical properties of the thick films reported are comparable with ceramic PZT.

Piezoelectric polymer coatings for high-frequency fiber-optic modulators have been also investigated. Commercial vinylidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene copolymer has been used. The advantage of using polymer coatings is that the polymer jacket (coating) can be easily obtained by melt extrusion on a single-mode fiber. Thus, uniformity is easily achieved and surface roughness is not present. Furthermore, if annealing of the polymer is made prior poling, a high degree of crystallinity is enhanced, leading to better piezoelectric properties.


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Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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