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The fabrication of nanomaterials with strict control over size, shape, and crystalline structure has inspired the application of nanochemistry to numerous fields including catalysis, medicine, and electronics. The use of nanomaterials in such applications also requires the development of methods for nanoparticle assembly or dispersion in various media. A majority of studies have been aimed at dispersion in aqueous media aimed at their use in medical applications and studies of environmental effects, however, the principles of nanoparticle fabrication and functionalization of nanoparticles transcends their eventual application. Herein, we review the most general routes to nanoparticles of the key types that may have particular application within the oil and gas industry for sensor, composite, or device applications.

Synthesis methods for nanoparticles are typically grouped into two categories: “top-down” and “bottom-up”. The first involves division of a massive solid into smaller portions. This approach may involve milling or attrition, chemical methods, and volatilization of a solid followed by condensation of the volatilized components. The second, “bottom-up”, method of nanoparticle fabrication involves condensation of atoms or molecular entities in a gas phase or in solution. The latter approach is far more popular in the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Dispersions of nanoparticles are intrinsically thermodynamically metastable, primarily due to their very high surface area, which represents a positive contribution to the free enthalpy of the system. If the activation energies are not sufficiently high, evolution of the nanoparticle dispersion occurs causing an increase in nanoparticle size as typified by an Ostwald ripening process. Thus, highly dispersed nanoparticles are only kinetically stabilized and cannot be prepared under conditions that exceed some threshold, meaning that so-called “soft-chemical” or “ chemie duce ” methods are preferred. In addition, the use of surface stabilization is employed in many nanomaterials to hinder sintering, recrystallization and aggregation.


  • J. Gopalakrishnan, Chem. Mater ., 1995, 7 , 1265.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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