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This module (Part 3) has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Volume 4, Number 3 (July - September, 2009). Formatted and edited by Theodore Creighton, Virginia Tech.

Behavioral strategies and observable behaviors

Behavioral Strategies

Given a dominant paradigm, its related mental models, and the mindsets supporting the paradigm and mental models, individuals, groups, and entire school systems begin to devise strategies for how to behave within the dominant paradigms and about how to implement effectively their chosen mental models. These strategies are devised to help educators and their school systems succeed within the dominant paradigm by deciding about how they should work, when they should work, with whom they should collaborate to do the work, and so on. These strategies, when implemented, create observable behaviors.

Observable Behaviors

As individuals, groups, and entire school systems implement their behavioral strategies observable behaviors are manifested. Ideally, these behaviors will be clearly and unequivocally aligned with the dominant paradigm and mental models that govern the profession of education. These behaviors, when manifested effectively, move school systems toward their paradigm-driven visions.

Observable behaviors can be seen, heard, interpreted, and evaluated by others. If the observed behaviors are congruent with the four dominant paradigms and related mental models and with mindsets that control the education profession and school systems, then the people manifesting the observable behaviors are evaluated positively and rewarded. If their observed behaviors are not aligned with the controlling paradigm, mental models, and mindsets, then these people are punished or ignored; e.g., sometimes subtly as when an article is rejected for publication and sometimes in an embarrassingly obvious ways like when a person is publicly denied an opportunity to serve on a powerful committee.

Paradigm shifting

Kuhn (1962) used the term “paradigm” to characterize significant changes in the hard sciences of his time. He argued that scientific advancement is not evolutionary; rather, he believed scientific advancement is a relatively peaceful journey punctuated by aggressive intellectual revolutions that replace one world view with another (this view is also supported by Tushman, Newman,&Romanelli, 1986). In other words, a paradigm shift is a revolutionary change from one way of thinking (as embedded in paradigms and mental models), believing (as reflected in mindsets) and doing (as reflected in behavioral strategies and observable behaviors) to another way. It is a revolution or disruptive transformation and it just does not happen on its own; rather, in the field of education it is being driven by frame-breaking revolutionaries with a powerful and compelling vision for creating and sustaining a new future for America’s school systems who are creating and nurturing powerful coalitions for transformational change. For example, the FutureMinds: Transforming American School Systems initiative sponsored by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology ( www.futureminds.us ). However, as I have argued, creating a paradigm shift is no easy feat and doing so is analogous to trying to convince an entire religious community to shift to a new religion.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Paradigms, mental models, and mindsets: triple barriers to transformational change in school systems. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10723/1.1
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