# 0.3 Beer's law and data analysis

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## Objectives

• Learn or review typical data analysis procedures–plotting data with excel, performing linear regression analysis, etc.
• Explore the concepts and applications of spectrophotometry

• Pre-lab (10%)
• Lab Report Form–including plot (80%)
• TA points + Pop Quiz (10%)

## Before coming to lab…

• Print out the lab instructions and report form.
• Complete the pre-lab, due at the beginning of the lab

## Introduction

When describing chemical compounds, scientists rely on their chemical and physical properties. In lab, we might observe that a metal reacts violently with water, that a reactant is liquid at room temperature, or that a powder is yellow. Chemical and physical properties can be used qualitatively to identify a material or to predict its behavior, or quantitatively to determine how much of that material is present in a solution. In this lab, we will develop a scheme to determine the concentration of copper sulfate in aqueous solution using spectrophotometry.

To start, we will consider light and its interaction with matter. Chemicals exhibit a diverse range of colors, especially when they contain transition metal ions. In order for a compound to have color, it must absorb visible light. Visible light consists of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm, a small section of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum shown below.

Light is characterized by its frequency ( $\nu$ ), the number of times the crest of the wave passes some point in space per second, or by its wavelength ( $\lambda$ ), the distance between two successive crests. These two quantities are related by the speed of light, a fundamental constant: $\text{λν}=c=3×{\text{10}}^{8}\text{m/s}$ . Planck related the frequency of light to its energy (E) according to $E=\text{hν}$ , where h is Planck's constant, $h=6\text{.}\text{626}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{34}}\text{J/s}$ .

A compound will absorb light when the radiation posesses the energy needed to move an electron from its lowest energy (ground) state to some excited state. The particular energies of radiation that a substance absorbs dictate the colors that it exhibits. Conversely the color of a compound can help us to determine its electronic configuration.

White light contains all wavelengths in this visible region. When a transparent sample (like most aqueous solutions) absorbs visible light, the color we perceive is the sum of the remaining colors that are transmitted by the object and strike our eyes.If an object absorbs all wavelengths of visible light, none reaches our eyes, and it appears black. If it absorbs no visible light, it will look white or colorless. If it absorbs all but orange, the material will appear orange. We also perceive an orange color when visible light of all colors except blue strikes our eyes. Orange and blue are complementary colors; the removal of blue from white light makes the light look orange, and vice versa. Thus, an object has a particular color for one of two reasons: It transmits light of only that color or it absorbs light of the complementary color.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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